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CAMBODIA AND THE COLD WAR

THE CAMBODIAN NATIONAL

ARCHIVES

SOURCES ON THE KHMER ROUGE YEARS:
THE CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE PROGRAM

Until now,

by Kenton J. Clymer

[Ed. note: Following is the First Progress Report (dated 15 September 1995) of the

Cambodian Genocide Program, based at the Yale Centerfor International and Area Studies, On a graceful boulevard radiating out Council of Southeast Asia Studies, Yale Law School, Orvill H. Schell Jr. Center for from Wat Phnom in Cambodia’s capital, International Human Rights, Yale University.] Phnom Penh, stands the elegant, newly renovated National Library of Cambodia. Built

Executive Summary by the French in the 1920s (it opened on 24 December 1924), the library also housed the The Cambodian Genocide Program (CGP) has made rapid progress in assembling the country's archives. A separate archives documentation, legal expertise and historical evidence necessary to prosecute the crimes of building, located directly behind the Na- Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime. This is consistent with the CGP mandate to help implement tional Library (and thus not visible from the “the policy of the United States to support efforts to bring to justice members of the Khmer street) was built in 1930. Unlike the library, Rouge for their crimes against humanity committed in Cambodia between April 17, 1975 it still awaits renovation. Designed with and January 7, 1979.” [PL 103-236, Sec. 572.] Nearing the halfway mark of its two year high ceilings, large windows, and electric mandate, the program has the following major achievements to its credit: ceiling fans, both buildings incorporated the best available technology for preserving 1. Identifying Legal Options for Redress books and manuscripts in tropical climates.

the international impetus has not existed to motivate the Cambodians to During the French colonial period and organize an effective process to seek legal remedies for the Pol Pot regime's crimes. The after, until the end of the Khmer Republic in Royal Cambodian Government is now considering several options for legal redress of the 1975, the library and archives were admin-genocide, based on the findings of an international conference hosted by the Cambodian istered jointly. In 1986, however, following Genocide Program in cooperation with the U.S. Department of State. This conference, the Vietnamese model, they were separated. chaired by CGP Director Ben Kiernan, of Yale University, was held in Phnom Penh on 21 The library is controlled by the Ministry of and 22 August 1995. It was addressed by two international legal scholars commissioned by Information and Culture, while the archives the Department of State to review the legal possibilities for cases involving criminal reports to the Council of Ministries. 1 violations of international humanitarian law and international criminal human rights law in

During the terrible period of the Khmer Cambodia. Cambodia's two Co-Prime Ministers also addressed the conference; both Rouge (1975-78), the library and archives praised Yale University and its CGP. The conference was attended by nearly 100 others, were home to pig keepers, who served the including six Members of the National Assembly, senior officials from the Council of Chinese advisers living in the hotel next Ministers and various ministries such as Justice and Interior, and legal officers. door. The pigs rooted in the beautiful gardens. All of the staff from the library and 2. Documenting the Cambodian Genocide archives, about forty people, fled. Only a Until now, no detailed picture has existed of specific atrocities, victims and perpetrators handful survived the Khmer Rouge regime, of the Cambodian genocide. The Cambodian Genocide Program has made major strides in and only two or three returned to work in the assembling the documentation necessary to prosecute the authors of the Cambodian library once the Khmer Rouge were driven genocide. A series of databases, now information, will be made accessible through the out in 1979.

Internet by 1997: a) computerized maps of Khmer Rouge prisons and victim grave sites The library's holdings today are only a across Cambodia; b) a biographic database on the Cambodian elite, many of whom fraction of what they were in 1975. But comprised victims of the Khmer Rouge; c) a second biographic database on the Khmer contrary to popular belief, the Khmer Rouge Rouge political and military leadership, including many alleged perpetrators of criminal may not have systematically destroyed books acts; d) an electronic database of photographs, including rare images taken during Pol Pot's and documents.2 To be sure many books 1975-79 Democratic Kampuchea (DK) regime and 4,000 photographs taken by the Khmer were ruined, some simply pushed off the Rouge of their victims before execution; e) an imaging database of thousands of rare shelves to make room for cooking pots, documents from the Pol Pot period, many of which are being made publicly available for the others used for cooking fires or for cigarette first time; and f) a bibliographic database of literature and documents in various languages papers.3 Subsequent neglect and misman- on the Pol Pot regime. Yale's CGP is uniquely qualified to carry out this work because of agement made matters worse, arguably much Yale's singular combination of Cambodia area and archive studies, genocide research, legal worse. Many books that did survive the resources, information systems, and geographical expertise necessary to effectively execute Khmer Rouge years were improperly stored this complex research undertaking. and soon succumbed to insects and the elements. Two Australians archivists, Helen 3. Recreating Lost Histories

Until now, no detailed history of events in each region and zone of the Khmer Rouge regime had been contemplated. The Cam- genocide and crimes against humanity ever contract with the U.S. Department of State, bodian Genocide Program has nine new perpetrated. While those responsible for the Mr. Jason Abrams of the Open Society Instihistories already underway, comprising de- Nazi Holocaust in the first half of the 20th tute and Professor Steven Ratner of the Unitailed and original research on the fates of century were punished, there has been little versity of Texas are now completing a study various regions and population groups into effort to bring the Khmer Rouge to justice of options for legal redress of criminal huwhich Pol Pot's regime divided Cambodia. for the atrocities they committed. In 1994, man rights violations during the Democratic In the process, Cambodian scholars are be- the U.S. Congress sought to address this Kampuchea (DK) regime between 17 April ing trained in both social science methods problem by enacting the Cambodian Geno- 1975 and 7 January 1979. When it is comand computer documentation. In addition to cide Justice Act. A team of world-class pleted, the study will offer an analysis of the these nine separate studies in preparation, Cambodia scholars based at Yale was cho- most probable cases of violations of crimiothers are in the planning stage. The first sen to receive funding from the U.S. Depart- nal human rights laws under the DK regime, volume of these studies is to be published in ment of State, and subsequently, by the and the most likely avenues for redress. 1997.

continued on page 265

Australian Department of Foreign Affairs Abrams and Ratner have tentatively con

and Trade. That team has now, in three cluded that the Khmer Rouge are culpable 4. Training Cambodian Lawyers quarters of a year, made tremendous progress on several counts of violating international

Until now, the legal expertise did not in remedying this omission of justice and criminal laws concerning genocide, war exist in Cambodia to support a trial of Khmer accountability. Four major problems face crimes, and crimes against humanity. They Rouge leaders utilizing due process guaran- any effort to bring the Khmer Rouge to further have concluded that there are several tees and unimpeachable evidentiary stan- justice:

possible avenues for legal redress of these dards. The Cambodian Genocide Program 1) a paucity of specific documen- criminal violations, including an ad hoc inhas just graduated the first class of seventeen tary evidence linking high-level ternational tribunal, a domestic Cambodian Cambodian legal professionals, government policymakers and military person- tribunal, and/or some form of an internaofficials, and human rights workers from nel to acts of genocide and crimes tional commission of inquiry. CGP's nine-week intensive summer school against humanity;

At the Striving for Justice Conference, on international criminal law and interna- 2) insufficient training of Cambo- Abrams and Ratner presented their draft tional human rights law. The school was dian officials and lawyers with the conclusions to an invitation-only audience held in Phnom Penh from June to August political will and legal skills to bring of nearly 100 distinguished guests. The au1995, with the participation of the Orville H. the Khmer Rouge to justice;

dience consisted of representatives from the Schell Jr. Center for International Human 3) insufficient awareness among

Offices of the Co-Prime Ministers, the Rights at the Yale Law School. A second Cambodian policymakers of the op- Deputy Prime Minister, the Council of Minsummer school will be held in Cambodia in tions available for legal redress of isters, several key ministries including Intemid-1996. The individuals trained in the genocide and crimes against human- rior and Justice, numerous Cambodian and CGP program will be able to staff a domestic

ity; and

international human rights organizations, or international tribunal.

4) the lack of a permanent, indig

members of the Cambodian National As

enous Cambodian NGO tasked to sembly, a representative of the United Na5. Creating a Permanent Cambodian carry out independent research and

tions Secretary General, a member of the Documentation Center

documentation on the Cambodian U.S. Congress, and others. The conference Until now, no "center of gravity” ex- genocide.

was also addressed by the First Prime Ministed in Cambodia to provide a spark for the Yale University's Cambodian Geno- ister, His Royal Highness Samdech Krom serious study of what happened to Cambo- cide Program is making excellent progress Preah Norodom Ranariddh, and the Second dian society during the Khmer Rouge re- toward solution of these four problems. Prime Minister, His Excellency Samdech gime. The Cambodian Genocide Program That progress is described in this First In- Hun Sen. The conference offered extensive has established an international non-gov- terim Progress Report of the Cambodian opportunities for discussion and exchange ernmental organization in Phnom Penh, Genocide Program.

of ideas among the participants. Conference known as the Documentation Center of Cam- Identifying Legal Options for Redress. participants reached a clear consensus on the bodia. The Documentation Center is facili- Until now, no conference of Cambodian and need for accountability, and outlined importating the field operations of the CGP, train- international observers has examined spe- tant specific next steps to be taken to bring ing Cambodians in research and investiga- cific legal options for redress of Cambodia's the Khmer Rouge leadership to justice. tive techniques, and will enable an indig- genocide. On 21 and 22 August 1995, the Documentation Databases. The Camenous organization to continue the work of Cambodian Genocide Program hosted an bodian Genocide Program is assembling an the program after the conclusion of the CGP international conference under the banner, elaborate family of databases collectively mandate in January 1997.

"Striving for Justice: International Criminal known as the Cambodian Genocide Data

Law in the Cambodian Context.” The Striv- Base (CGDB). Using the Computerized Introduction

ing for Justice Conference brought together Documentation System (CDS/ISIS) designed

a wide range of interested observers and by UNESCO and modified to suit CGP's In Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, the decisionmakers for discussions with two particular needs by our programmers, CGP world witnessed one of the worst cases of international criminal law experts. Under a is making rapid progress in the compilation of all known primary and secondary mate- 50,000 pages of documentation had been evant documents, including a near-complete rial relating to the Khmer Rouge regime. entered into the bibliographical database. set of the records in Khmer from the 1979 in The Program has already obtained access to The Victim Database. The Cambodian absentia genocide tribunal of Pol Pot and several little-known caches of documents, Genocide Program has made arrangements leng Sary. Using custom software already including a DK Foreign Ministry archive, to obtain and make electronically accessible designed specifically for CGP, CGDB users archives of the DK Trade Ministry, the only to an international audience Dr. Justin will be able to browse through the biblioknown surviving archive from a DK re- Corfield's biographical database containing graphic database and, upon finding a record gional prison, original maps of Khmer Rouge more than 40,000 entries on the Cambodian of particular interest, “jump” to a full digital killing fields, and several collections of rare elite. We express our thanks to Dr. Corfield. image of that specific document with the photographs taken by the DK regime itself. We have plans to expand this database with “click” of a mouse. This capability can Another collection made available to the additional information obtained as a result of considerably expedite the search for incrimiCGP includes a set of internal minutes of our original research. Given the patterns of nating evidence of genocidal intent. key meetings of the DK “Party Center” held violence in Democratic Kampuchea, it is The Geographic Database. The Camin 1975 and 1976. CGP currently has two likely that a large number of the individuals bodian Genocide Program is also in the missions at work in Vietnam, in Hanoi and listed in this database became victims of the process of constructing an elaborate comin Ho Chi Minh City, searching for relevant Khmer Rouge. Thus this database may be- puter-based map showing the physical locadocumentation in state and private archives. come useful for identifying and cross-refer- tions of facilities of the Khmer Rouge “inter

These databases will bridge a huge gap encing victims of genocide and crimes against nal security” apparatus, including prison and in the case against the Khmer Rouge. Be- humanity.

“killing field” sites. The Cambodian Mine cause these databases did not previously The Photographic Database. The Cam- Action Center established by the United exist, policymakers could not precisely iden- bodian Genocide Program is preparing to Nations Transitional Authority in Cambotify victims and perpetrators, nor could they scan several large collections of photographs dia has designed standardized software for establish empirical links between the two on into the CGDB. These collections contain a mapping work in Cambodia, and CGP has a national scale. Yale's CGDB resolves this significant number of items which are likely obtained access to this system for our purproblem. When the databases are complete, to have a high degree of evidentiary value for poses. Utilizing the Global Positioning Sysan investigator using them could, for ex- the prosecution. Examples include a large tem to pinpoint the precise coordinates of ample, identify individual victims and per- number of photos of DK leaders, of forced locations identified by our researchers, CGP petrators of a particular atrocity, perhaps labor brigades, and the entire collection of will accurately map the Khmer Rouge terror with photographs and biographies of the prisoner photographs from the Tuol Sleng system and the resting places of its victims. individuals in question. Yale's CGP is Genocide Museum. Most of the 4,000 pris- The resulting display is likely to constitute uniquely qualified to carry out this work oner mugshots are currently not accompa- an incriminating indictment of the scope of because of Yale's singular combination of nied by any identification of the prisoners. Khmer Rouge terror, providing strong eviCambodia area and archival studies, geno- By making these photographs available on dence of widespread crimes against humancide research, legal resources, information the internet, and adding to the database a ity. systems, and geographical expertise neces- special field for readers to key in suggested Disseminating the Databases. In addisary to effectively execute this complex names for each photograph, we hope to ob- tion to publishing analytical indexes of the research undertaking.

tain identities for many of the victims of the databases, user access to the computer dataThe Bibliographic Databases. The bib- Khmer Rouge. The names could be used to bases themselves will be enabled in several liographic database will contain records on prosecute perpetrators on charges of killing ways. First, physical copies of the database this new material and on all other known specific persons.

will be deposited at several locations in the primary and secondary sources of informa- The Khmer Rouge Biographical Data- United States and Cambodia. Second, we tion pertaining to the Khmer Rouge regime, base. The Cambodian Genocide Program is hope to make the entire database available including books, articles, monographs, docu- assembling a second biographical database on CD-ROM. Finally, through the Internet, ments, reports, interviews, tapes, films and containing data on members of the Khmer the database will be made accessible to all videos, transcripts, and so forth. As noted, Rouge organization between 1975 and 1979. interested parties worldwide. The projected CGP research efforts have already led to a This database will include both political and implementation date for the online genocide dramatic increase in existing documentary military leadership, down to the srok (dis- database is early 1997. evidence through discovery of previously trict) level. Thus this database will be useful Collecting and compiling data on Camunknown archival sources. Rapid progress for identifying the chain of command in bodia under the Khmer Rouge will be one of has been made with the design and estab- various regions at various times, and in es- the most significant contributions of the lishment of this database. The initial pro- tablishing command responsibility for par- CGP, for both historical and legal reasons. gram timelines projected the creation of ticular atrocities.

Organizing this mass of new information some three hundred records in a biblio- The Imaging Database. The Cambo- into a structured whole will enable citizens graphic database by the end of December dian Genocide Program is in the process of to fully comprehend the nightmare of what 1995. That milestone was achieved in Feb- scanning images of original DK documents happened in Cambodia under the Khmer ruary 1995. As of August 1995, approxi- into the database. We have already accom- Rouge. It will allow historians to compile a mately 1000 records representing some plished the scanning of several hundred rel- more compelling and accurate picture of the past. It will allow policymakers to fashion a particular in Cambodia’s genocide. Few tional Relations. Training of Khmer staff case for the necessity of accountability for detailed studies exist of particular regions

detailed studies exist of particular regions and researchers in Cambodia on all aspects the Cambodian genocide. And it will pro- under the Khmer Rouge, and so up to now it of operating the Documentation Center of vide prosecutors with critical information has been impossible to assemble a complete Cambodia is also occurring on a weekly

a on crimes committed by specific individu- picture of what happened on a national scale. basis. als.

By breaking down the research task into Until now, no one in Cambodia had the Research. Cambodian Genocide Pro- particular regions, and simultaneously se- range of legal skills required to bring the gram Director Ben Kiernan's new book, The lecting several integrating themes such as Khmer Rouge to justice in fair and Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power and Genocide the Party Center, Cham Muslims, Buddhists procedurally sound trials. The CGP's trainin Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975- and women, the CGP studies will recon- ing programs have directly addressed this 1979, will soon be available from Yale Uni- struct the nexus between the local situation shortcoming. This is consistent with the versity Press. A comprehensive survey of and national policy. This will provide cru- Cambodian Genocide Justice Act, which the Cambodian genocide, it provides a cial analytical evidence of the extent of states that it is “the policy of the United baseline of existing information from which national control by the Khmer Rouge, and States to support efforts to bring to justice more specific research can be initiated. The the impact of this control on all the people of members of the Khmer Rouge for their crimes CGP has already begun implementing a wide Cambodia.

.

against humanity committed in Cambodia range

of new social science research on the Legal Training Project. On 18 August between April 17, 1975 and January 7, 1979.” Cambodian genocide.

1995, the Cambodian Genocide Program [PL 103-236, Sec. 572.] For instance, six professional Cambo- produced its first graduates in international The Documentation Center of Cambodian researchers and an American have been criminal law and international human rights dia. The Documentation Center of Camboat work for several months on new histories law. Seventeen Cambodian legal profes- dia (“DC-Cam”) is a non-profit international of the seven geographic zones and regions of sionals successfully completed the nine-week non-governmental organization (NGO) esthe Democratic Kampuchea (DK) regime: training program, including officials from tablished in January 1995 by the CGP to the Southwest Zone, the Western Zone, the the Ministries of Justice and Interior, the facilitate training and field research in CamNorthwest Zone, the Siemreap-Oddar Council of Ministers, and three Cambodian bodia related to the CGP's mission. With Meanchey Region, the Northern Zone, the non-governmental human rights organiza- offices in Phnom Penh, the DC-Cam serves Northeast Zone (including Kratie) and the tions. The training covered principles of as a base of operations for the documentaEastern Zone. One of these 70-page mono

international criminal law pertaining to geno- tion, research and training activities carried graphs is already well on the way to comple- cide, crimes against humanity and war out under the auspices of the CGP. The staff tion, and the others are expected to be com- crimes; the structure of national and interna- of DC-Cam is entirely Cambodian in completed in 1996, for publication in 1997. tional legal enforcement mechanisms, in- position, and weekly staff development train

The Cambodian Genocide Program has cluding national courts, ad hoc international ing is already in progress to prepare indigalso commissioned several additional stud- tribunals, the International Court of Justice, enous personnel to assume full responsibilies, including one of the DK “Party Center” and truth commissions; and the requirements ity for all aspects of operations in 1997. (whose members included Pol Pot, Nuon of due process and evidentiary standards. In January 1997, at the conclusion of the Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen, Khieu Samphan, The Cambodian Genocide Program will CGP's mandate, DC-Cam will be transleng Thirith, Yun Yat, Mok, Ke Pauk and build on this foundation next year to further formed into a Cambodian NGO to serve as a Vorn Vet). This monograph will examine enhance the capacity of the Cambodian legal permanent institute for the study of topics the Khmer Rouge chain of command and the system to cope with the anticipated political related to the Khmer Rouge regime, and as a degree of central authority over events in the decision to move forward with legal redress resource for Cambodians and others who zones and regions. This study will com- for crimes committed during the Pol Pot may wish to pursue legal redress for genomence in September 1995, and is expected regime. After consulting with the Royal cide, war crimes and crimes against humanto be completed in 1996. The CGP has Cambodian Government and other inter- ity perpetrated under that regime. The docucommissioned a further study of the geno- ested observers as to the preferred fora for mentation and research products of the CGP cide against the Cham Muslim minority un- seeking redress, the CGP will fashion a will be deposited with the Documentation der the Pol Pot regime, and work on this second training project designed to incul- Center of Cambodia for access by the Cammonograph will also commence in Septem- cate the skills necessary to implement those bodian people. ber 1995. In addition, the CGP plans new means of redress selected by the appropriate [For those who have access to the monographs on the Buddhist monkhood, on political authorities.

internet, DC-Cam has a World Wide Web women, and on the Vietnamese, Chinese Several additional varieties of training HomePage containing more information and tribal minorities, focussing on the fate of under CGP auspices are in progress. Train

.

about that organization, located at http:// these population cohorts under the Pol Pot ing of Khmer researchers in Cambodia on www.pactok.net.au. The Documentation regime. We expect at least one and possibly social science methods, historiography and Center e-mail address is two collected volumes of these monographs database management has been proceeding decam @pactok.peg.apc.org.) ] to be published in 1997 and 1998. since June 1995 on a weekly basis. Two

Research Collaboration. The CamboThese studies will be of crucial impor- Cambodian scholars are currently enrolled dian Genocide Program has won strong suptance in synthesizing the general and the for MA’s at Yale, in History and Interna- port from the worldwide Cambodia studies

a

community (see "Scholars Speak out on the CGP's work. His Majesty King Norodom of international law and this clearly affected Cambodia Holocaust,” letter to the Wall Sihanouk wrote to CGP Manager Dr. Craig

Sihanouk wrote to CGP Manager Dr. Craig the interests of all states in general and Street Journal, signed by 29 Cambodia Etcheson on 21 July 1995, “I infinitely thank Cambodia in particular.” His Royal Highscholars and specialists, 13 July 1995). These the distinguished promoters of this research ness the First Prime Minister added, “The scholars represent virtually the entire field program, especially Dr. Ben Kiernan and Royal Government is determined to bring of Cambodian studies. Leading Cambodian yourself, for the care that you have mani- those responsible for the perpetration of scholars David P. Chandler, Milton E. fested, thanks to the 'Cambodian Genocide these heinous crimes against the Cambodian Osborne, and Michael Vickery have already Program,' in nourishing truth and promoting people to face justice.” In his closing adprovided help in various ways. Others who and assuring respect for human rights in my dress to the conference, His Excellency have responded positively to requests for country.”

Samdech Hun Sen summed up the view of information on their personal archival hold- Since the earliest days of the CGP in many participants by saying of the conferings include Justin Corfield, Mark Dodd, January 1995, the Royal Cambodian Gov,

ence, “This is not about politics, it is about Stephen Heder, Henri Locard, and Judy ernment has been unreservedly supportive of justice. If we do not bring the Khmer Rouge Ledgerwood. Additional Cambodia schol- the mandate given to Yale University by the to justice for killing millions of people, then ars like David Ashley and Jason Roberts U.S. government. The Co-Prime Ministers, there is no point in speaking about human have generously offered to work with the the Deputy Prime Minister, the Co-Ministers rights in Cambodia.” CGP on a volunteer basis.

of Interior, the Minister of Justice, the Co- Large numbers of ordinary Cambodian An Australian professional working Ministers of Defense, and the President of citizens seem to concur with the Co-Prime with the CGP has also initiated a project to the National Assembly have all pledged their Ministers. Many Cambodians in Cambodia, begin the computer mapping of Khmer personal and institutional cooperation with the U.S., and other countries have volunRouge prison and mass grave sites. This the CGP. Enthusiasm about the goals of the teered their assistance. Since June 1995, a project has now been funded by the Austra- program transcends political affiliation, with team of Cambodian volunteers in New Halian government at the level of A$24,300. support coming from the leadership of all ven, CT, has been preparing a biographical Additional funding is being sought. This is three parties represented in the government. index of Khmer Rouge political leaders and the first time anyone has attempted to con- But the cooperation of the Royal Govern- military commanders. As of September struct a comprehensive inventory of the ment has gone far beyond pledges. The 1995, Cambodian-American citizens' terror apparatus used by the Khmer Rouge Royal Government is providing the CGP groups in New York, New Jersey, Virginia, regime to murder up to two million people. with a wide range of resources to facilitate Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, California, and

In June, July, and August 1995, CGP our work in Cambodia and in the region at Texas have offered to compile witness testiDirector Ben Kiernan presented the large.

mony on behalf of the CGP. The thirst for Program's work-in-progress at the U.S. Fo- At the Striving for Justice Conference in justice is powerful among the survivors of rum on Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos (in Phnom Penh on 21 and 22 August 1995, First Pol Pot's genocide. New York), at Monash University and the Prime Minister Samdech Krom Preah Consistent with these feelings of ordiUniversity of New South Wales (in Austra- Norodom Ranariddh and Second Prime Min- nary Cambodians and the policy of the govlia), and at the Foreign Correspondents' ister Samdech Hun Sen publicly committed ernment, the CGP has received from the Club in Phnom Penh. These occasions all the Royal Cambodian Government to bring Royal Cambodian Government significant produced new collaboration from foreign the Khmer Rouge leadership to justice for assistance to our research program. One of scholars and specialists, ranging from an their crimes against humanity. In his open- the most useful forms of this aid is the offer of a large biographic database to a ing address to the conference, the First Prime unprecedented assistance from the Royal promise of rare photographs of the Pol Pot Minister complimented the CGP, saying, Government in retrieving documentation leadership. The ability of the CGP to attract “On behalf of the Royal Government, on from Vietnam unavailable to researchers up the cooperation of Cambodia scholars, along behalf of Samdech Hun Sen, Second Prime until now. In combination with previously with legal and technical experts worldwide, Minister, and on my own behalf, I would like unexamined archives from the Cambodian is a key factor in explaining the success of toexpress my deepest appreciation and warm- People's Party, Royal Government ministhe Program to date.

est congratulations to the Office of Cambo- tries, and private archives now being opened Cambodian Reception of the CGP. dian Genocide Investigation and Yale Uni- to the CGP in Cambodia, a wealth of new Cambodian leaders have complained for versity for embarking on the two years data pertaining to criminal culpability duryears that the outside world had not recog- programme of documentation, research and ing the Khmer Rouge regime seems destined nized the crimes of the Khmer Rouge and training on the Cambodian genocide. I would to come to light. It is the expressed policy of the tragedy of the Cambodian people. The also like to express my sincere thanks equally the Royal Government to assist the CGP in initiation of the Cambodian Genocide Pro- to the United States to create the Cambodian uncovering such important information. gram helped answer this complaint on an Genocide Justice Act and its appointment of Evaluation. To ensure objectivity and international scale. This measure of recog- Yale University to carry out the two year quality control, the CGP has instituted a nition sparked a new willingness among the programme.”

rigorous two-tier system of program evaluCambodian political elite to squarely face Substantively, the First Prime Minister ation. In the first tier, the Steering Group of the darkest chapter of Cambodian history. argued, “The international crimes of the the Department of State's Office of CamboCambodians have become full partners in Khmer Rouge violated the most central norms dian Genocide Investigations conducts peri

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