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Obozrevatel, 1995), on problems and Higher than the World Standard), Novaia Joint Task Force on Archives, American achievements of Russian secret services Ezhednevnaia Gazeta, 1 September 1994.) Association for the Advancement of Slavic published. (Itar-Tass, 11 October 1995, in
Studies and The American Historical AssoFBIS-SOV-95-196 (11 October 1995), 39- Russian presidential decree (no. 489-rp, dated ciation, 1 April 1995," Slavic Review 54:2 40.)
22 September 1994) is supposed to lead to (Summer 1995), 407-426.)
massive declassification of materials more Publications: Oleg Gordievsky, Next Stop than 30 years old. (“Decree to Reveal Se- Interview with Rosarkhiv head R.G. Pikhoia. Execution: The Autobiography of Oleg crets,” Moscow News [English] 40 (7-13 (“Rossiia atnositsoa 1 chislu belikikh Gordievsky (London: Macmillan, 1995); October 1994), 14.)
archivnikh derzhav”” [“Russia Acts Toward Harvey Klehr, John Haynes, and Fridrikh
a Time of Great Archival Power”], Rossiiski Igorevich Firsov, eds., The Secret World of State Duma passes legislation on Freedom of Vesti, 22 June 1995, 7.) American Communism (New Haven, CT: Information giving citizens rights to state Yale University Press, 1995).
information resources, reports Rossiiskie vesti Interview with head of the Russian Presi
on 23 November 1994. (RFE/RL Daily Re- dential Archives (APRF) Aleksandr Archival/Research Developments: port 223 (28 November 1994).)
Korotkov. (“Dla chevo otkrivaiem ‘osobuyu
papki”” [Why Open the “Special Files”), Complaints persist on difficulties of archi- State Duma passes Russian “Federal Law on Krasnaia Zvezda, 9 August 1995, 2.) val access. (Anna Repina, “Komu oni Information, Informatization, and the Pronuzhny, eti tainy” [They are Secrets to those tection of Information” on 25 January 1995;
Armenia Who Need Them], Smena, 12 October 1993, signed by Yeltsin on 20 February 1995. (Text
in Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 22 February 1995, Document published purporting to confirm
15-16, in FBIS-SOV-95-048-S (13 March secret collaboration between Dashnak party Archive official's report, based on a De- 1995), 29-37
(Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF)) cember 1993 speech at RTsKhIDNI. (V.P.
and KGB during Soviet era. (Aragil ElecKozlov, “Zarubezhnaia arkhivnaia Rossika: Yeltsin signs decree no. 180 dated 17 Febru- tronic News Bulletin (Yerevan), 4 March Problemy i Napravleniia Raboty” [Foreign ary 1995 to declassify and publish docu- 1995, in FBIS-SOV-95-043(6 March 1995), Archives Relating to Russia: Problems and ments on Soviet nuclear weapons program 93.) the Direction of Work), Novaia i Noveishaia up to 1954. (“Yeltsin Opens Archives On Istoriia 3 (1994), 13-23.)
Soviet Nuclear History," Washington Post, Ex-KGB officer describes work in 1980s.
19 February 1995, A46; OMRI Daily Digest (Golos Armenii (Yerevan), 6 July 1995, 1-2, Russia and France complete first of series of 36:1 (20 February 1995); Rossiskaya Gazeta, in FBIS-SOV-95-136 (17 July 1995), 92planned archival exchanges. (“Archival Files 1 March 1995, 14, in FBIS-SOV-95-058-S 94.) Are Returned to Russia from France,” (27 March 1995), 1.) Commission formed to Diplomaticheskii Vestnik 3-4 (February implement decree; members listed.
Belarus 1994), 79.)
(Rossiiskaia Gazeta, 7 June 1995,5, in FBIS-
Belarus body aiding U.S.-Russian MIA/ Archival regulations. (“Polozheniie ob
POW commission facing disbandment. arkhivom fonde Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [The Russian government decree on (Yevgeny Sulyga, “About Traces of the VietState of the Archives in the Russian Federa- declassification and archives adopted. (“Ob nam War in the City of Minsk,” tion), Rossiiskaia Gazeta, 1 April 1994, 4.) ustanovleniya poryadka rassekrechivaniya i Komsomolskaya Pravda (Moscow], 28 Feb
prodleniya srokov zasekrechivaniya ruary 1995, 1, 3, in FBIS-SOV-95-040 (1 Sakharov's archives open. (Marina arkhivnykh dokumentov Pravitel’stva March 1995), 51-52.) Lebedeva, “Otkryvaetsia arkhiv Sakharova” SSSR,” Sobranie zakonodatelstva Rossiiskoi [Sakharov’s Archive Opens], Izvestiia, 21 Federatsii 9 (27 February 1995), 1539-1542.)
Interagency regional conference in Estonian government concerned by reports in Moscow], Nezavisimaia Gazeta, 21 May Novosibirsk discusses need to protect secret of KGB documents being sold on black 1994, 6; Viola Egikova, “Zemlianoi val. information. (Vecherniy Novosibirsk, 19 June market; Estonia's Archives Department acArkhiv Sakharova” [Earthern Rampart: 1995, 2, in FBIS-SOV-95-121 (23 June 1995), knowledges loss of “thousands of files on Sakharov's Archive], Moskovskaia Pravda, 34.)
the activity of the KGB and other intelli24 May 1994, 9.)
gence agencies.” (Interfax report of 20 NoProbe of archival situation in Russia, recom- vember 1994, in RFE/RL Daily Report 221 Interview with Rosarkhiv head R.G.Pikhoia. mendations, by panel of American scholars. (21 November 1994).) (Sergei Barshavchik, “Tseny (Norman Naimark, William G. Rosenberg, gosudarstvennye tainy v Rossii po- William Taubman, Kathryn Weathersby, Parliamentary committee reports results of prezhdemy vyshe mirovykh” [As Before, Donald J. Raleigh, Gregory Freeze, and David two-year investigation of KGB activities in the Prices on State Secrets in Russia are Ransel, “Discussion: Final Report of the Estonia, including review of archives.
(Tallinn ETA, 20 February 1995, iin FBIS
Archiv 28:3 (1995), 290-298; Gerhard SOV-95-034 (21 February 1995), 99. Ukrainian archives yield new data on 1986 Wettig, “Stalin - Patriot und Demokrat fur
Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. Deutschland?” and Loth, “Kritik ohne Law calling on ex-KGB agents in Estonia to (N.V. Makovs'ka, “Politichnaia Gundlagen. Erwiderung auf Gerhard confess or face public exposure working Retrospektiva Chornobyl’s’koi Katastrofi v Wettig,” Deutschland Archiv 28:7 (1995), “surprisingly well,” police say. (Tallinn Dokumentakh” [A Political Retrospective 743-750; Wettig, “Die beginnende BNS, 3 April 1995, in FBIS-SOV-95-064 (4 of the Chernobyl Catastrophe in Documents), Umorientierung der sowjetischen April 1995), 73.) Arkhiv Ukrainy 1-3 (1993), 99-105.) Deutschland-Politik im Fruhjahr und
Sommer 1953,” Deutschland Archiv 28:5 Latvia
Detailed recounting of how glasnost in late (1995), 495-507.
1980s permitted freer airing of true dimenCourt finds Saeima deputy Roberts Milbergs sions of 1933 famine in Ukraine. (James E. Stasi files disclose data on notorious terrornot guilty of having collaborated with KGB. Mace, “How Ukraine Was Permitted to Re- ist “Carlos" and lawyer now defending him, (RFE/RL Daily Report 22 (23 November member,” The Ukrainian Quarterly 49:2 Jacques Verges. (Peter Sandmeyer, “The 1994).) (Summer 1993), 121-151.)
Jackal and the Villain,"Stern (Hamburg), 22
September 1993, 202-204, in FBIS-WEUKGB recruiter says current parliamentarian Czech Republic/Former Czechoslovakia 94-185 (23 September 1994), 14-15.) Andrejs Silins was listed as KGB agent in 1972 without his knowledge. (Tallinn BNS, Czech parliamentary commission investi- Social Democratic Party (SPD) chair 9 December 1994, in FBIS-SOV-94-238 gating late 1980 Warsaw Pact maneuvers Rudolph Scharping seeks Stasi files to rebut (12 December 1994), 86-87.)
may have had political overtones, but link to charges by Helmut Kohl and others that the
possible invasion of Poland still unclear. SPD betrayed the goal of German unificaKGB document found dating from 1982 (Prague CTK, 8 February 1995, in “No tion in talks with GDR officials. granting access to secret documents to present Direct Proof of 1980 Poland Invasion (Sueddeutsche Zeitung (Munich), 8 Februday Defense League volunteer paramilitary Found,” FBIS-EEU-94-027-A (9 February ary 1994, 4, in “Scharping Rejects CDU organization head Johannes Kert, who says 1995), 6-7.)
Accusations of SPD-Stasi Cooperation,” he cannot explain document. (Rahva Haal,
FBIS-WEU-94-027 (9 February 1994), 31.) 21 December 1994, in Tallinn ETA, 21 Government approves principle of opening December 1994, in FBIS-SOV-94-246 (22 StB (secret police files), Interior Minister Reports cite Stasi files showing Party of December 1994), 52.) Estonian security Ruml denies it will lead to wave of lawsuits. Democratic Socialism (PDS) politician policy say KGB files refute allegations that (Prague CTK, 30 March 1995, in “Ruml Gregor Gysi collaborated with secret police Kert was linked to the KGB. (Tallinn BNS, Outlines Provisions of Bill on StB Files," against his client, dissident Robert 24 January 1995, in FBIS-SOV-95-016 (25 FBIS-EEU-95-062-A (31 March 1995), 5.) Havemann; Gysi denies charges. (“Meeting January 1995), 52.)
at 'Ellen,'” Der Spiegel (Hamburg), 17 OcFormer East Germany
tober 1994, 21-26, in FBIS-WEU-94-201 Controversy erupts in parliament over fate (German Democratic Republic) (18 October 1994), 23-25; “Gregor's Reof unopened archives of Latvian KGB.
ports,” Der Spiegel (Hamburg), 7 Novem(Tallinn BNS, 5 May 1995, in FBIS-SOV- Evidence on Soviet occupation of Germany ber 1994, 26-30, in “Files Incriminate Gysi 95-087 (5 May 1995), 88.)
after World War II. (Norman M. Naimark, for Stasi "Collaboration," FBIS-WEU-94
“Die Sowjetische Militaradministration in 216 (8 November 1994), 22.) Lithuania
Deutschland und die Frage des Stalinismus,"
Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaft 43:4 Charges lodged against couple for spying Mystery and controversy continue to sur- (1995), 295-97; Naimark, “The Soviets and for Stasi against West Germany between round status and fate of estimated 300,000 the Christian Democrats: The Challenge of a 1971 and 1976. (Berlin DDP/ADN, 27 Ocfiles left behind by Lithuanian KGB. “Bourgois' Party in Eastern Germany, 1945- tober 1994, in FBIS-WEU-94-209 (28 Oc(Nikolay Lashkevich, “Lithuania: Who Has 1949,” 9:3 (Fall 1995), 369-92; see also tober 1994), 18.) Got the KGB Archives,” Izvestiia (Mos- Naimark's The Russians in Germany, cited cow), 10 March 1995, 4, in FBIS-SOV-95- below.
Interview with Markus Wolf, former head of 049 (14 March 1995), 103-105.)
GDR external intelligence service. (“East Debate continues on 1952 Stalin Notes and Germany's Old Spymaster Talks: So Many Ukraine
question of early opportunity for German Regrets, but Uncontrite,” NYT, 6 June 1995,
unification. (Manfred Kittel, “Genesis einer A11.) Letters pertaining to 1969 arrest of Ukrai- Legende. Die Discussion um die Stalinnian activist Maj.-Gen. P.G. Grigorenko. Noten in der Bundesrepublic 1952-1958,” Publications: R.C. Raack, Stalin's Drive to (“Petr Grigorenko: Iz Khroniki Tavli” [Pe- Vierteljahrshefte fur Zeitgeschichte 41:3 the West, 1938-1945: The Origins of the ter Grigorenko: From the Chronicle of his (1994), 355-389; Wilfried Loth, “Stalin die Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford UniverPersecution], Segodnia, 12 April 1994, 9.) deutsche Frage und die DDR,” Deutschland sity Press, 1995); Norman Naimark, The Russians in Germany: A History of the So- Engelmayer, Hungarian ambassador to Po- Radio, 30 March 1995, in FBIS-EEU-95viet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949 (Cam- land, recounting influence of 1956, 1968, 061 (30 March 1995), 23. bridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970, etc. (“Ambassador with a Rucksack," 1995); Inventar der Befehle des Obersten The Hungarian Quarterly 35:133 (Spring Student groups demand release of secret Chefs der Sowjetischen Militaradministra- 1994), 123-128.)
police files on 1977 death of anti-governtion in Deutschland (SMAD) 1945-1949
ment activist Stanislaw Pyjas. (RFE/RLDaily (Munich: K.G. Saur, 1995); Wilfried Loth, Publications: Die Ungarische Revolution Report 41 (1 March 1994).
, ed.,Die deutsche Frage in die Nachkriegszeit 1956 [findings of an Austrian-Hungarian (Berlin: Akademie, 1994); Philip Zelikow Conference in Vienna, 6 April 1995] (Wien: Publications: Tajne Dokumenty Biura and Condoleezza Rice, Germany Unified Collegium Hungaricum, 1995).
Politycznego: Grudzien 1970 [Secret Docuand Europe Transformed: A Study in State
ments of the Politbureau of the Polish Comcraft (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
munist Party (PUWP) on Events of DecemPress, 1995).
ber 1970](London: Aneks Publishers, 1991); Sejm considering State Secrets Bill barring Tajne Dokumenty: Biura Politycznego: Hungary
release of information on intelligence activi- PZPR a "Solidarnosc" 1980-1981 [Secret
ties for 80 years, national security or defense Documents of the Politbureau of the Polish Recounting of case of school-teacher ar- information for 40 years, and economic se- Communist Party (PUWP). Party versus rested in connection with show trials in crets for 30 years; media, liberals, oppose “Solidarity” 1980-1981] (London: Aneks Hungary under Matyas Rakosi in Stalin's bill, which is returned to committee. (RFE/ Publishers, 1992); Tajne Dokumenty Biura
( last years. (Eva V. Deak, “A Show Trial RL Daily Report 163 (29 August 1994).) Politycznego i Sekretariatu KC: Ostatni rok Case History: The Story of Gyorgyi Government and media agree new constitu- wladzy 1988-1989 [Secret Documents of the Tarisznyas,” The Hungarian Quarterly tion will guarantee freedom of information, Politbureau of the Polish Communist Party 35:134 (Summer 1994), 75-91.)
press; parliament rejects restrictive secrecy (PUWP) and the Secretariat of the Central
law. (Rzeczpospolita and Gazeta Wyborcza Committee: The Last Year in Power, 1988Budapest Military Prosecutor's Office on reports, 25 October 1994, quoted in RFE/RL 1989) (London: Aneks Publishers, 1994); 28 October 1994 presses charges against Daily Report 203 (25 October 1994).) Andrzej Garlicki, ZTajnych Archiwow [From three army officers accused of killing un
the Secret Archives] (Warsaw: Polska armed demonstrators during 1956 events, Ex-Soviet base near Szczecin seen as Oficyna Wydawnicza ‘BGW’, 1993); Pawel according to MTI. (RFE/RL Daily Report econological hazard. (Glos Szczecinski, 1 Machcewicz, Polski Rok 1956 [The Polish 207 (31 October 1994).)
February 1995, 1, in JPRS-TEN-95-004 (28 Year 1956] (Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza
‘Mowia Wieki’, 1993); Andrzej Garlicki Survey of international dimension of 1956
and Andrzej Paczkowski, eds., Zaciskanie Hungarian crisis, using new Eastern, West- Russian Prime Minister Chernomyrdin on 9 Petli: Tajne Dokumenty Dotyczace ern, and Hungarian sources. (Csaba Bekes, September 1994 meets Polish team investi- Czechoslowacji 1968 r. [Tightening of the “The 1956 Revolution and World Politics,” gating Katyn massacre. (Gazeta Wyborcza Noose: Secret Documents Concerning The Hungarian Quarterly 36 (Summer cited in RFE/RL Daily Report 173 (12 Sep- Czechoslovakia 1968] (Warsaw: 1995), 109-121.)
tember 1994).) Polish president Walesa, at Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, 1995); Michael
ceremony marking 55th anniversary of Katyn Bernhard and Henryk Szlajfer, eds., From Recordings of Radio Free Europe/Radio massacres, calls on Russia to reveal full the Polish Underground: Selections from Liberty broadcasts during 1956 Hungarian truth. (Warsaw TV, 3 April 1995, in FBIS- Krytyka, 1978-1993 (University Park, PA: crisis discovered. (NYT, 24 October 1995.) EEU-96-064 (4 April 1995), 32-33.) Crimi- Pennsylvania State Press, 1995).
nal probe begun in 1993 by Smolensk MiliNewly-available Hungarian archives inform tary Prosecutor's Office drawing to a close.
Romania account of Budapest's role in 1968 Czecho- (Komsomolskaya Pravda (Moscow), 29 April slovak crisis. (Istvan Vida, “Janos Kadar 1995, in FBIS-SOV-95-085 (3 May 1995), Report on Soviet policy toward December and the Czechoslovak Crisis of 1968,” The 6-7.) Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, and 1989 Romanian events, including letter from Hungarian Quarterly 35:135 (Autumn Belarusian prosecutors sign accord on coop- Shevardnadze to Gorbachev and minutes of 1994), 108-123.)
eration regarding Katyn investigations. (War- meetings. (“On the Events of 1989 in Roma
saw PAP, 31 May 1995, in FBIS-EEU-95- nia,” Diplomaticheskii Vestnik (Moscow) Government abolishes Historical Investi- 107-A (2 June 1995), 23.) Walesa speaks at 21-22 (November 1994), 74-80.) gation Committee established by previous Katyn. (FBIS-EEU-95-107 (5 June 1995), Hungarian government to investigate “blank 48-49.) Yeltsin sends message to ceremony. Appearing before “December 1989” parliaspots” in recent history, says radio Budapest (Moscow Interfax, 3 June 1995, in FBIS- mentary commission, President Ilescu deon 22 December 1994. (RFE/RL Daily SOV-95-107 (5 June 1995), 9.)
nied allegations he sought Soviet assistance Report 241 (22 December 1994).)
on 22 or 23 December 1989. (Adevarul Ministry of Internal Affairs considers open- (Bucharest), 20 December 1994, 2, in FBISBiographical interview with Akos ing up archives up to 1956. (Warsaw Polskie EEU-94-249 (28 December 1994), 17.)
Target Zhou Enlai: The ‘Kashmir Princess' English translations of newly released RusControversy erupts over documents claim- Incident of 1955,” The China Quarterly 139 sian materials, with commentary. (Vladimir ing past collaboration by Bishop Laszlo (September 1994), 766-782.)
Petrov, “Soviet Role in the Korean War Tokes, ethnic Hungarian priest whose arrest
Confirmed: Secret Documents Declassified,” sparked 1989 revolt, with Romanian Article based on CCP sources explores Zhou Journal of Northeast Asian Studies 13:3 Securitate secret police [Romanian Intelli- Enlai's handling of the 1958 Taiwan Straits (Fall 1994), 42-67.) gence Service, or SRI). (Gyorgy Jakab, crisis, including data on secret communica“UDMR Will Ask to See the SRI Files of All tions between PRC and Taiwan. (Liao Kathryn Weathersby, “New Russian ArchiPolitical Leaders,” Adevarul (Bucharest), Xinwen, “Zhou Enlai yu heping jiejue taiwan val Materials, Old American Debates, and 29 December 1994, in FBIS-EEU-95-001 (3 wentide fangzhen” [Zhou Enlai and the Ini- the Korean War,” Problems of Post-Com
January 1995), 24.) Paper publishes pur- tiative to Peacefully Solve the Taiwan Prob- munism 42:5(September-October 1995), 25-
A conference on "The Korean War: An formed the Securitate Under the Name of Reassessment, using new Chinese sources, Assessment of the Historical Record,” was Laszlo Kolozsvar,” Curierul National of Mao's evolving views of U.S. (He Di, held at Georgetown University, Washing(Bucharest), 31 December 1994, in FBIS- “The Most Respected Enemy: Mao Zedong's ton, DC, on 24-25 July 1995, sponsored by EEU-95-003 (5 January 1995), 19.) Perception of the United States,” The China The Korea Society, Korea-America Soci
Quarterly 137 (March 1994), 144-158.) ety, and Georgetown University. Please Mongolia
consult the sponsors for copies of papers Publications: Michael H. Hunt and Niu Jun, delivered. Account of Soviet intervention in 1984 Mon- eds., Toward a History of Chinese Commugolian putsch. (Zorik Tsedenbal, “Novoe nist Foreign Relations, 1920s-1960s: Per- Publications: William Stueck, The Korean ‘Delo Vrachei”” [A New “Doctor's Plot"], sonalities and Interpretive Approaches War: An International History (Princeton, Nezavisimaia Gazeta (Moscow), 2 March (Washington, DC: Asia Program, Woodrow NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995); Shu 1994, 8.)
Wilson International Center for Scholars, Guang Zhang, Mao's Military Romanticism:
n.d.); John Wilson Lewis and Xue Litai, China and the Korean War, 1950-1953 People's Republic of China China's Strategic Seapower: The Politics of (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas,
Force Modernization in the Nuclear Age 1995) [Ed. note: For detailed lists of recent sources, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, see the essays by Michael Hunt and Chen 1994); Nicholas Eftimiades, Chinese Intelli
Vietnam/Vietnam War Jian elsewhere in this issue of the Bulletin.] gence Operations (Annapolis, MDL Naval
Institute Press, 1994); Robert S. Ross, Nego- USSR sent 3,000 troops to Vietnam during Evidence on early wrangling between Chi- tiating Cooperation: The United States and U.S. involvement there, and 13 were killed, nese Communist Party (CCP) and Moscow China, 1969-1989 (Stanford, CA: Stanford writes former Tass correspondent, citing inover Soviet seizure of Chinese industrial University Press, 1995); Thomas J. terviews with ex-Soviet ambassador I. equipment in Manchuria at close of World Christensen, Useful Adversaries: Grand Shcherbakov and other former officials. (AP War II. (Liu Guowu, “Zhanhou zhongsu Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino- dispatch citing article Aleksandr Minaev in liangguo chuli dongbei rewei chanyede American Conflict, 1947-58 (forthcoming
American Conflict, 1947-58 (forthcoming Ekho Planety [Echo of the Planet), Novemjiufen” [The Argument Between China and in 1996 from Princeton University Press). ber 1995.) the USSR After the War Over How to Deal with the Japanese Puppet’s Industry), Mod
Vietnamese evidence on reactions to 1965 ern Chinese History (Chinese People's Uni
U.S. peace overtures. (Robert K. Brigham, versity Publications Reprint Series) 1 (1995), Soviet policy toward Korea immediately “Vietnamese-American Peace Negotations: 100-104.
following World War II assessed. (Kan In The Failed 1965 Initiatives," forthcoming in
Gu, “The Soviet Union's Korean Policy The Journal of American-East Asian RelaReassessment of early stages of relations Following the Second World War (1945- tions.) (and non-relations) between U.S. and PRC. 1948), Vestnik Sankt Peterburgskogo (Thomas J. Christensen, “A 'Lost Chance' Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 16 (1994), Survey of PRC policy toward Vietnam War, for What? Rethinking the Origins of U.S.- 91-93.)
using recently opened Chinese sources. PRC Confrontation,” The Journal of Ameri
(Chen Jian, “China's Involvement in the can-East Asian Relations 4:3 (Fall 1995), Soviet documents on the Korean War, in- Vietnam War, 1964-1969," The China Quar249-278.)
cluding military reports to Stalin. (“The Par- terly 142 (June 1995), 356-378.)
ticipation of the USSR in the Korean War Account of alleged attempt by Guomindang (New Documents),” Voprosi istorii 11 Former Chinese People's Liberation Army (Kuomintang) to murder PRC Premier Zhou (1994), 30-46.)
official Zhu Kaiyin writes that Mao scaled Enlai in 1955. (Steve Tsang, “Research Note:
back military aid to North Vietnam in late