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WITH CHINESE LEADERS
I: Conversation between Stalin and and mutual assistance between China and troops does not mean that Soviet Union Mao, Moscow, 16 December 1949 the USSR.
refuses to assist China, if such assistance is Comrade Stalin: This question we can needed. The fact is that we, as communists, [Classification level blacked out: discuss and decide. We must ascertain are not altogether comfortable with station“NOT SECRET” Stamped] whether to declare the continuation of the ing our forces on foreign soil, especially on
current 1945 treaty of alliance and friend- the soil of a friendly nation. Given this RECORD OF CONVERSATION ship between the USSR and China, to an- situation anyone could say that if Soviet BETWEEN COMRADE
nounce impending changes in the future, or forces can be stationed on Chinese territory, I.V. STALIN AND CHAIRMAN to make these changes right now.
then why could not the British, for example, OF THE CENTRAL PEOPLE'S
As you know, this treaty was concluded station their forces in Hong Kong, or the GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE'S between the USSR and China as a result of Americans in Tokyo? REPUBLIC OF CHINA MAO ZEDONG the Yalta Agreement, which provided for We would gain much in the arena of on 16 December 1949
the main points of the treaty (the question of international relations if, with mutual agree
the Kurile Islands, South Sakhalin, Port ment, the Soviet forces were to be withAfter an exchange of greetings and a Arthur, etc.). That is, the given treaty was drawn from Port Arthur. In addition, the discussion of general topics, the following concluded, so to speak, with the consent of withdrawal of Soviet forces would provide a conversation took place.
America and England. Keeping in mind this serious boost to Chinese communists in their
circumstance, we, within our inner circle, relations with the national bourgeoisie. EvComrade Mao Zedong: The most im- have decided not to modify any of the points eryone would see that the communists have portant question at the present time is the of this treaty for now, since a change in even managed to achieve what (Nationalist Chiquestion of establishing peace. China needs one point could give America and England nese leader] Jiang Jieshi [Chiang Kai-shek] a period of 3-5 years of peace, which would the legal grounds to raise questions about could not. The Chinese communists must be used to bring the economy back to pre- modifying also the treaty's provisions con- take the national bourgeoisie into considerwar levels and to stabilize the country in cerning the Kurile Islands, South Sakhalin, ation. general. Decisions on the most important etc. This is why we searched to find a way The treaty ensures the USSR's right to questions in China hinge on the prospects to modify the current treaty in effect while station its troops in Port Arthur. But the for a peaceful future. With this in mind the formally maintaining its provisions, in this USSR is not obligated to exercise this right CC CPC (Central Committee of the Com- case by formally maintaining the Soviet and can withdraw its troops upon Chinese munist Party of China] entrusted me to as- Union's right to station its troops at Port request. However, if this is unsuitable, the certain from you, comr[ade). Stalin, in what Arthur while, at the request of the Chinese troops in Port Arthur can remain there for 2, way and for how long will international government, actually withdrawing the So- 5, or 10 years, whatever suits China best. Let peace be preserved.
viet Armed forces currently stationed there. them not misunderstand that we want to run Comrade Stalin: In China a war for Such an operation could be carried out upon away from China. We can stay there for 20 peace, as it were, is taking place. The quesChina's request.
years even. tion of peace greatly preoccupies the Soviet One could do the same with KChZhD Comrade Mao Zedong: In discussing Union as well, though we have already had [Chinese Changchun Railroad, which the treaty in China we had not taken into peace for the past four years. With regards to traverses Manchuria], that is, to effectively account the American and English positions China, there is no immediate threat at the modify the corresponding points of the agree- regarding the Yalta agreement. We must act present time: Japan has yet to stand up on its ment while formally maintaining its provi- in a way that is best for the common cause. feet and is thus not ready for war; America, sions, upon China's request.
This question merits further consideration. though it screams war, is actually afraid of If, on the other hand, the Chinese com- However, it is already becoming clear that war more than anything; Europe is afraid of rades are not satisfied with this strategy, they the treaty should not be modified at the war; in essence, there is no one to fight with can present their own proposals.
present time, nor should one rush to withChina, not unless Kim Il Sung decides to Comrade Mao Zedong: The present draw troops from Port Arthur. invade China?
situation with regard to KCHZhD and Port Should not Zhou Enlai visit Moscow in Peace will depend on our efforts. If we Arthur corresponds well with Chinese inter- order to decide the treaty question? continue to be friendly, peace can last not ests, as the Chinese forces are inadequate to Comrade Stalin: No, this question you only 5-10 years, but 20-25 years and perhaps effectively fight against imperialist aggres- must decide for yourselves. Zhou may be even longer.
sion. In addition, KChZhD is a training needed in regard to other matters. Comrade Mao Zedong: Since Liu school for the preparation of Chinese cadres Comrade Mao Zedong: We would like Shaoqi's return to China, CC CPC has been in railroad and industry.
to decide on the question of Soviet credit to discussing the treaty of friendship, alliance Comrade Stalin: The withdrawal of China, that is to draw up a credit agreement
for 300.000.000 dollars between the gov- important here is not to give Americans a Comrade Mao Zedong: They have been ernments of the USSR and China.
pretext to intervene. With regard to head- nationalized. Comrade Stalin: This can be done. If quarters staff and instructors we can give Comrade Stalin: In whose hands is the you would like to formalize this agreement them to you anytime. The rest we will have customs agency? now, we can. to think about.
Comrade Mao Zedong: In the hands of Comrade Mao Zedong: Yes, exactly Do you have any assault landing units? the government. now, as this would resonate well in China. Comrade Mao Zedong: We have one Comrade Stalin: It is important to focus At the same time it is necessary to resolve former Guomindang assault landing regi- attention on the customs agency as it is the question of trade, especially between the ment unit which came over to join our side. usually a good source of government revUSSR and Xinjiang [Sinkiang], though at Comrade Stalin: One could select a present we cannot present a specific trade company of landing forces, train them in Comrade Mao Zedong: In the military operations plan for this region.
propaganda, send them over to Formosa, and and political sectors we have already Comrade Stalin: We must know right through them organize an uprising on the achieved complete success; as for cultural now what kind of equipment China will isle.
and economic sectors, we have as yet not need, especially now, since we do not have Comrade Mao Zedong: Our troops have freed ourselves from foreign influence there. equipment in reserve and the request for approached the borders of Burma and Indo- Comrade Stalin: Do you have inspecindustrial goods must be submitted ahead of China. As a result, the Americans and the tors and agents overseeing foreign entertime.
British are alarmed, not knowing whether we prises, banks, etc.? Comrade Mao Zedong: We are having will cross the border or whether our troops Comrade Mao Zedong: Yes, we have. difficulties in putting together a request for will halt their movement.
We are carrying out such work in the study equipment, as the industrial picture is as yet Comrade Stalin: One could create a and oversight of foreign enterprises (the unclear.
rumor that you are preparing to cross the Kailan [?] mines, electric power plants and Comrade Stalin: It is desirable to expe- border and in this way frighten the imperial- aqueducts in Shanghai, etc.). dite the preparation of this request, as re- ists a bit.
Comrade Stalin: One should have govquests for equipment are submitted to our Comrade Mao Zedong: Several coun- ernment inspectors who must operate leindustry at least a year in advance. tries, especially Britain, are actively cam- gally. The foreigners should also be taxed at
Comrade Mao Zedong: We would very paigning to recognize the People's Republic higher levels than the Chinese. much like to receive assistance from the of China. However, we believe that we Who owns the enterprises mining wolUSSR in creating air transportation routes. should not rush to be recognized. We must fram [tungsten), molybdenum, and petro
Comrade Stalin: We are ready to ren- first bring about order to the country, leum? der such assistance. Air routes can be estab- strengthen our position, and then we can talk Comrade Mao Zedong: The governlished over Xinjiang and the MPR [Mongo- to foreign imperialists.
ment. lian People's Republic). We have special- Comrade Stalin: That is a good policy. Comrade Stalin: It is important to inists. We will give you assistance.
In addition, there is no need for you to create crease the mining of minerals and especially Comrade Mao Zedong: We would also conflicts with the British and the Americans.
conflicts with the British and the Americans. of petroleum. You could build an oil pipelike to receive your assistance in creating a If, for example, there will be a need to put line from western Lanzhou to Chengdu [?], naval force.
pressure on the British, this can be done by and then transport fuel by ship. Comrade Stalin: Cadres for Chinese resorting to a conflict between the Guangdong Comrade Mao Zedong: So far we have navy could be prepared at Port Arthur. You province and Hong Kong. And to resolve not decided which districts of China we give us people, and we will give you ships. this conflict, Mao Zedong could come for- should strive to develop first - the coastal Trained cadres of the Chinese navy could ward as the mediator. The main point is not areas or those inland, since we were unsure then return to China on these ships. to rush and to avoid conflicts.
of the prospects for peace. Comrade Mao Zedong: Guomindang Are there foreign banks operating in Comrade Stalin: Petroleum, coal, and [Kuomintang] supporters have built a naval Shanghai?
metal are always needed, regardless of and air base on the island of Formosa (Tai- Comrade Mao Zedong: Yes.
whether there be war or not. wan). Our lack of naval forces and aviation Comrade Stalin: And whom are they Comrade Stalin: Can rubber-bearing makes the occupation of the island by the serving?
trees be grown in southern China? People's Liberation Army [PLA] more dif- Comrade Mao Zedong: The Chinese Comrade Mao Zedong: So far it has not ficult. With regard to this, some of our national bourgeoisie and foreign enterprises been possible. generals have been voicing opinions that we which so far we have not touched. As for the Comrade Stalin: Is there a meteorologishould request assistance from the Soviet foreigners' spheres of influence, the British cal service in China? Union, which could send volunteer pilots or predominate in investments in the economic Comrade Mao Zedong: No, it has not secret military detachments to speed up the and commercial sectors, while the Ameri- been established yet. conquest of Formosa.
cans lead in the sector of cultural-educa- Comrade Stalin: It should be estabComrade Stalin: Assistance has not tional organizations.
lished. been ruled out, though one ought to consider Comrade Stalin: What is the situation Comrade Stalin: We would like to the form of such assistance. What is most regarding Japanese enterprises?
receive from you a list of your works which
Rivals and Allies:
in the conflict; the exchange, recently de- backfired badly when Mao refused to play Stalin, Mao, and the Chinese Civil War, classified in the Russian archives, is printed along with the Soviet leader's initiative. In January 1949 below.
his telegram of January 13, Mao not only
There are several likely reasons why turned down Moscow's instructions on how Introduction by Odd Arne Westad Stalin did not want to turn the GMD appeal his party should respond to the GMD, but
down forthright. He may genuinely have even had the temerity to suggest to Stalin In early 1949, as the communist-led seen the response he outlined to Mao as the how he ought to respond on behalf of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) was win- best tactic in order to forestall a propaganda Soviet Union. In both cases Mao emphaning decisive victories on the battlefield in victory for the GMD and Washington. Stalin sized that there was no need for negotiations the Chinese civil war, the Guomindang probably also wanted to impress on Mao and and that Stalin's suggestions would only (GMD) government made a last attempt at a the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leader- delay the final military victory. peace settlement through Great Power me- ship his status as the master tactician of the For the leader of a Communist party to diation. Stalin decided not to disregard world Communist movement—as someone respond in such a way to Stalin's instruccompletely the GMD initiative, but to offer whoimmediately understood a political situ- tions was rather unusual in the late 1940s, Soviet mediation in case the Chinese gov- ation wherever it came up with more clarity and did not endear the CCP to the Soviet ernment accepted those harsh preconditions and breadth than “local” leaders. Thirdly, he leadership. On the Chinese side—even after spelled out in his January 10 telegram to may have wanted to remind the CCP leaders, Moscow basically accepted Mao's replyMao Zedong. That telegram, in turn, in a not too subtle way, of their dependence there remained a suspicion that Stalin had prompted a brief but revealing exchange on Soviet political and diplomatic support really wanted to stop the PLA offensives between the two communist leaders over the notwithstanding the PLA's victories. north of the Yangzi river and thereby createa merits of diplomatic versus military tactics Whatever his motives, Stalin's scheme
continued on page 27
could be translated into Russian.
1, delo (d.) 329, listy (II.) 9-17; translation they could be left intact. The existing agreeComrade Mao Zedong: I am currently by Danny Rozas.]
ments, including the treaty, should be reviewing my works which were published
changed because war against Japan figures in various local publishing houses and which
at the very heart of the treaty. Since the war contain a mass of errors and misrepresenta
is over and Japan has been crushed, the tions. I plan to complete this review by II. Conversation between Stalin and situation has been altered, and now the treaty spring of 1950. However, I would like to Mao, Moscow, 22 January 1950
has become an anachronism. receive help from Soviet comrades: first of
I ask to hear your opinion regarding the all, to work on the texts with Russian trans- RECORD OF CONVERSATION treaty of friendship and alliance. lators and, secondly, to receive help in edit- BETWEEN COMRADE I.V. STALIN Mao Zedong: So far we have not worked ing the Chinese original.
out a concrete draft of the treaty, only a few Comrade Stalin: This can be done.
OF THE CENTRAL PEOPLE'S outlines. However, do you need your works edited?
GOVERNMENT OF THE
Stalin: We can exchange opinions, and Comrade Mao Zedong: Yes, and I ask PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA then prepare an appropriate draft. you to select a comrade suitable for such a
Mao Zedong: Judging from the current task, say, for example, someone from CC
situation, we believe that we should VKP/b/ [All-Union Communist Party of
22 January 1950
strengthen our existing friendship using the bolsheviks).
help of treaties and agreements. This would Comrade Stalin: It can be arranged, if
resonate well both in China and in the interindeed there is such a need.
After an exchange of greetings and a national arena. Everything that guarantees
short discussion of general topics, the fol- the future prosperity of our countries must Also present at the meeting: comrs. lowing conversation took place.
be stated in the treaty of alliance and friendMolotov, Malenkov, Bulganin, Vyshinskii, Stalin: There are two groups of ques- ship, including the necessity of avoiding a [Soviet translator N.T.] Fedorenko and [Chi- tions which must be discussed: the first repetition of Japanese aggression. So long nese translator) Shi Zhe /Karskii/.
group of questions concerns the existing as we show interest in the prosperity of our agreements between the USSR and China; countries, one cannot rule out the possibility
the second group of questions concerns the that the imperialist countries will attempt to Recorded by comr. Fedorenko. current events in Manchuria, Xinjiang, etc.
I think that it would be better to begin Stalin: True. Japan still has cadres [signature illegible 31/XII]
not with the current events, but rather with a remaining, and it will certainly lift itself up
discussion of the existing agreements. We again, especially if Americans continue their [Source: Archive of the President, Russian believe that these agreements need to be current policy. Federation (APRF), fond (f.) 45, opis (op.) changed, though earlier we had thought that Mao Zedong: Two points that I made earlier are cardinal in changing our future while, in effect, allowing appropriate changes there, China must decide on its own the treaty from the existing one. Previously, the to take place.
question of Dalny: will it remain a free port Guomindang spoke of friendship in words Mao Zedong: We must act so as to take or not. During his time Roosevelt insisted only. Now the situation has changed, with into account the interests of both sides, China that Dairen remain a free port. all the conditions for real friendship and and the Soviet Union.
Mao Zedong: So the preservation of the cooperation in place.
Stalin: True. We believe that the agree- free port would be in the interests of America In addition, whereas before there was ment concerning Port Arthur is not equi- and Britain? talk of cooperation in the war against Japan, table.
Stalin: Of course. It's a house with now attention must turn to preventing Japa- Mao Zedong: But changing this agree- open gates. nese aggression. The new treaty must in- ment goes against the decisions of the Yalta Mao Zedong: We believe that Port clude the questions of political, economic, Conference?!
Arthur could serve as a base for our military cultural and military cooperation. Of most Stalin: True, it does—and to hell with it! collaboration, while Dalny could serve as a importance will be the question of eco- Once we have taken up the position that the base for Sino-Soviet economic collaboranomic cooperation.
treaties must be changed, we must go all the tion. In Dalny there is a whole array of Stalin: Is it necessary to keep the pro- way. It is true that for us this entails certain enterprises that we are in no position to vision, stated in article 3 of the current inconveniences, and we will have to struggle exploit without Soviet assistance. We should Treaty of friendship: “... This article shall against the Americans. But we are already develop a closer economic collaboration remain in force up until that time when, by reconciled to that.
there. request of both High Participants in the Mao Zedong: This question worries us Stalin: In other words, the agreement Treaty, the United Nations is given the only because it may have undesirable conse- on Port Arthur will remain in force until a responsibility of preventing any future ag- quences for the USSR.
peace treaty is signed with Japan. After the gression on the part of Japan”?
Stalin: As you know, we made the signing of the peace treaty the existing agreeMao Zedong: I don't believe it is nec- current agreement during the war with Ja- ment shall become invalid and the Russians essary to keep this provision.
pan. We did not know that Jiang Jieshi would shall withdraw their troops. Did I sum up Stalin: We also believe that it is unnec- be toppled. We acted under the premise that your thoughts correctly? essary. What provisions do we need to the presence of our troops in Port Arthur Mao Zedong: Yes, basically so, and it specify in the new treaty?
would be in the interests of Soviet Union and is exactly this which we would like to set Mao Zedong: We believe that the new democracy in China.
forth in the new treaty. treaty should include a paragraph on consul- Mao Zedong: The matter is clear.
Stalin: Let us continue the discussion of tation regarding international concerns. The Stalin: In that case, would you deem the the KChZhD question. Tell us, as an honest addition of this paragraph would strengthen following scenario acceptable: declare that communist, what doubts do you have here? our position, since among the Chinese na- the agreement on Port Arthur shall remain in
Mao Zedong: The principal point is that tional bourgeoisie there are objections to the force until a peace treaty with Japan is signed, the new treaty should note that joint exploipolicy of rapprochement with the Soviet after which the Russian troops would be tation and administration will continue in Union on questions of international con- withdrawn from Port Arthur. Or perhaps one the future. However, in the case of adminis
could propose another scenario: declare that tration, China should take the lead role here. Stalin: Good. When signing a treaty of the current agreement shall remain in place, Furthermore, it is necessary to examine the friendship and cooperation, the inclusion of while in effect withdrawing troops from Port question of shortening the duration of the such a paragraph goes without saying. Arthur. We will accept whichever of these agreement and to determine the amount of Mao Zedong: That's right.
scenarios is more suitable. We agree with investment by each side. Stalin: To whom shall we entrust the both scenarios.
Molotov: The conditions governing the preparation of the draft? I believe that we Mao Zedong: This question should be cooperation and joint administration of an should entrust it to [Soviet Foreign Minister thought through. We agree with the opinion enterprise by two interested countries usuAndrei] Vyshinskii and [Chinese Foreign of comrade Stalin and believe that the agree- ally provide for equal participation by both Minister] Zhou Enlai.
ment on Port Arthur must remain in force sides, as well as for alternation in the apMao Zedong: Agreed.
until a peace treaty is signed with Japan, after pointment of replacements for management Stalin: Let us move over to the agree- which the treaty shall become invalid and the positions. In the old agreement the adminisment on KCHZhD. What proposals do you Soviet soldiers will leave. However, we tration of the railroad belonged to the Sovihave on this question?
would like for Port Arthur to be a place for ets; however, in the future we think it necesMao Zedong: Perhaps we should ac- military collaboration, where we could train sary to alternate in the creation of managecept as the guiding principle the idea of our military naval forces.
ment functions. Let's say that such an altermaking practical changes concerning the Stalin: The question of Dalny [Dairen; nation could take place every two-three years. KCHZhD and the Port Arthur agreements, Dalian]. We have no intention of securing Zhou Enlai: Our comrades believe that while legally continuing them in their present any Soviet rights in Dalny.
the existing management of KChZhD and state?
Mao Zedong: Will Dalny remain a free the office of the director ought to be abolStalin: That is, you agree to declare the port?
ished and a railroad administration commislegal continuation of the current agreement, Stalin: Since we are giving up our rights sion be set up in their place; and that the
offices of the commission chairman and of at the time did not even have its own govern
Stalin: We would like the central governthe director should be replaced by Chinese ment. It seems that you should hasten some- ment to sanction and take the responsibility cadres. However, given comrade Molotov’s what to present the requisition list for indus- for the agreements with Xinjiang or Manproposals, this question requires more trial equipment. It should be kept in mind churia. thought.
that the sooner such a list is presented, the Mao Zedong: The agreement with Stalin: If we are talking about joint better for the matter at hand.
Xinjiang must be signed in the name of the administration, then it is important that the Mao Zedong: We believe that the con- central government. replacements for the managing position be ditions of the credit agreement are generally Stalin: Right, since [a] provincial govalternated. That would be more logical. As favorable to China. Under its terms we pay ernment might not take many things into for the duration of the agreement, we would only one percent interest.
account, whereas things are always clearer not be against shortening it.
Stalin: Our credit agreements with to the central government. Zhou Enlai: Should we not change the people's democracies provide for two per- What other questions do you have? ratio of capital investment by each side, by cent interest. We could, says comr. Stalin Mao Zedong: At the present time the increasing the level of Chinese investment jokingly, increase this interest for you as main question is economic cooperation - the to 51%, instead of the current requirement well, if you would like. Of course, we acted reconstruction and development of the Manfor parity? under the premise that the Chinese economy
churian economy. Molotov: This would go against the was practically in ruin.
Stalin: I think that we will entrust the existing provision for parity.
As is clear from the telegrams that we preparation of this question to comrs. Stalin: We do indeed have agreements
have received, the Chinese government in- Mikoyan, Vyshinskii, Zhou Enlai, and [CCP with the Czechs and the Bulgarians which tends to use its army in the reconstruction of CC member and Vice Chairman of Finance provide for parity and equal-footing for both its economy. That is very good. In our time and Economics Commission] Li Fuchun. sides. Since we already have joint adminis- we also made use of the army in our eco- Any other questions? tration, then we might as well have equal nomic development and had very good re- Mao Zedong: I would like to note that participation. sults.
the air regiment that you sent to China was Mao Zedong: The question needs to be Mao Zedong: That's right. We are very helpful. They transported 10 thousand further examined, keeping in mind the inter- drawing on the experience of our Soviet people. Let me thank you, comrade Stalin, ests of both sides. comrades.
for the help and ask you to allow it to stay a Stalin: Let us discuss the credit agree- Stalin: You raised the question of China little longer, so it could help transport proviment. We need to officially formalize that receiving a certain amount of grain for sions to [CCP CC member and commander which has already been agreed to earlier. Do Xinjiang?
of the PLA's Second Field Army] Liu you have any observations to make?
Mao Zedong: Wheat and textile. Bocheng's troops, currently preparing for an Mao Zedong: Is the shipment of mili- Stalin: For this you need to come up attack on Tibet. tary arms considered a part of the monetary with the necessary requests that include num- Stalin: It's good that you are preparing loan? bers.
to attack. The Tibetans need to be subdued. Stalin: This you can decide you
Mao Zedong: Very well, we shall pre- As for the air regiment, we shall talk this we can bill that towards the loan, or we can
over with the military personnel and give formalize it through trade agreements.
How shall we proceed with the trade you an answer. Mao Zedong: If the military shipments agreement?
The meeting took two hours. are billed towards the loan, then we will have Stalin: What is your opinion? Up until Present at the meeting were comrs. little means left for industry. It appears that now we have only had a trade agreement Molotov, Malenkov, Mikoyan, Vyshinskii, part of the military shipments will have to be with Manchuria. We would like to know Roshchin, Fedorenko and Mao Zedong, Zhou billed towards the loan, while the other part what sort of a situation we should look Enlai, Li Fuchun, [PRC Ambassador to the will have to be paid with Chinese goods. forward to in the future: will we be signing USSR] Wang Jiaxiang, [CCP CC member] Can't the period of delivery of industrial separate agreements with Xinjiang, Man- Chen Boda, and Shi Zhe /Karskii/. equipment and military arms be shortened churia and other provinces, or a single agreefrom 5 to 3-4 years? ment with the central government?
[Source: APRF, f. 45, op. 1, d. 329, 11. 29-38; Stalin: We must examine our options. Mao Zedong: We would like to have a translation by Danny Rozas.] The matter rests in the requisition list for our single, central agreement. But in time industry. Nevertheless, we can move the Xinjiang may have a separate agreement. date that the credit agreement goes into Stalin: Just Xinjiang; what about Maneffect to 1 January 1950, since the shipments churia?
III. Conversation between Stalin and should begin just about now. If the agree- Zhou Enlai: A separate agreement with Zhou Enlai, 20 August 1952 ment specified July 1949 as the time for the Manchuria can be ruled out, since in the commencement of the loan, the international agreement with the central government
[Classification level blacked out: community would not be able to understand China's obligations would in essence be
“NOT SECRET” stamped] how an agreement could have been reached fulfilled by shipments made from Manchubetween the Soviet Union and China, which ria.