Proceedings, American Philosophical Society (vol. 107, no. 5, 1963)

American Philosophical Society


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第 376 頁 - Hammurabi, the exalted prince, the worshiper of the gods, to cause justice to prevail in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil, • to prevent the strong from oppressing the weak, to go forth like the Sun over the Black Head Race, to enlighten the land and to further the welfare of the people.
第 376 頁 - John A. Wilson, The Burden of Egypt (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1951), pp.
第 381 頁 - Finally, and this is an important point, the early li were the product of a society in which hierarchical difference was emphasized. That is to say, the li prescribed sharply differing patterns of behavior according to a person's age and rank both within his family and in society at large (one pattern when acting toward a superior, another toward an inferior, still a third toward an equal). This idea of hierarchical difference, with resulting differences in behavior and privilege, has remained alive...
第 384 頁 - Thus when ministers have made great claims while their actual accomplishment is small, they are punished. This is not punishment because of the smallness of the accomplishment, but because the accomplishment is not equal to the name of it. And when ministers have made small claims while the actual accomplishment is great, they are also punished. This is not because no pleasure is taken in the larger accomplishment, but because it is not in accord with the name given to...
第 380 頁 - Most of them were less theoretical thinkers than tough-minded men of affairs who, as administrators, diplomats, and political economists, sought employment from whatever state would use their services. Their aim was direct and simple: to create a political and military apparatus powerful enough to suppress feudal privilege at home, expand the state's territories abroad, and eventually weld all the rival kingdoms into a single empire. Toward this goal they were ready to use every political, military,...
第 413 頁 - General Program of the Committee on Documentary Reproduction, American Historical Association," College and Research Libraries, July, 1953: 303-307.
第 379 頁 - Tightness has its origin in what is fitting for the many. What is fitting for the many is what accords with the minds of men. Herein is the essence of good government. . . . Law is not something sent down by Heaven, nor is it something engendered by Earth. It springs from the midst of men themselves, and by being brought back [to men] it corrects itself.27 The sages, being enlightened and wise by nature, inevitably penetrated the mind of Heaven and Earth.
第 376 頁 - China, as we shall see in the next section, no one at any time has ever hinted that any kind of written law — even the best written law — could have had a divine origin.
第 376 頁 - Law is not a product of human thought, nor is it any enactment of peoples, but something eternal which rules the whole universe by its wisdom in command and prohibition. Thus they have been accustomed to say that Law is the primal and ultimate mind of God, whose reason directs all things either by compulsion or restraint.
第 381 頁 - Confucian ideal gentleman (the chün-tcu or "Superior Man") from ordinary men was his mastery of the li. On the other hand, the Confucians believed that underlying the minutiae of the specific rules of li are to be found certain broad moral principles which are what give the li their validity.