Wilson and China: A Revised History of the Shandong Question

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M.E. Sharpe, 2002 - 227 頁
Drawing on sources in Japanese, Chinese, and American archives and libraries, this book reassesses another facet of Woodrow Wilson's agenda at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference at the end of World War I. Breaking with accepted scholarly opinions, the author argues that Wilson did not "betray" China, as many Chinese and Western scholars have charged; rather, Wilson successfully negotiated a compromise with the Japanese to ensure that China's sovereignty would be respected in Shandong Province. Rejecting the compromise, Chinese negotiators refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, creating conditions for the Soviet Union's entry into China and its later influence over the course of the Chinese revolution.

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熱門章節

第 12 頁 - As Premier of Japan, I have stated and I now again state to the people of America and of the world that Japan has no ulterior motive, no desire to secure more territory, no thought of depriving China or other peoples of anything which they now possess.
第 20 頁 - Bay to be opened as a commercial port. 2. A concession under the exclusive jurisdiction of Japan to be established at a place designated by the Japanese Government. 3. If the foreign Powers desire it, an international concession may be established. 4. As regards the disposal to be made of the buildings and properties of Germany and the conditions and procedure relating thereto, the Japanese Government and the Chinese Government shall arrange the matter by mutual agreement before the restoration.
第 18 頁 - Republic that it cannot recognize any agreement or undertaking, which has been entered into or which may be entered into between the Governments of China and Japan impairing the treaty rights of the United States and its citizens in China, the political or territorial integrity of the Republic of China or the international policy relative to China commonly known as the Open Door Policy.
第 135 頁 - The Soviet Government returns to the Chinese people, without demanding any kind of compensation, the Chinese Eastern Railway, as well as all the mining concessions, forestry, gold mines, and all other things which were seized from them by the Government of the Tsar, that of Kerensky and the brigands, Horvath, Semenov, Kolchak, the Russian exgenerals, merchants and capitalists.
第 73 頁 - The settlement of every question, whether of territory, of sovereignty, of economic arrangement, or of political relationship, upon the basis of the free acceptance of that settlement by the people immediately concerned, and not upon the basis of the material interest or advantage of any other nation or people which, may desire a different settlement for the sake of its own exterior influence or mastery.
第 39 頁 - I have outlined. It is the principle of justice to all peoples and nationalities and their right to live on equal terms of liberty and safety with one another, whether they be strong or weak.
第 207 頁 - ... on the fact that the Chinese people were now at the parting of the ways. The policy of the Chinese Government was co-operation with Europe and the United States as well as with Japan. If, however, they did not get justice, China might be driven into the arms of Japan. There was a small section in China which believed in Asia for the Asiatics and wanted the closest co-operation with Japan.
第 75 頁 - Japanese . . . had a duty to perform to China in this matter, and they could not carry out their obligation to China unless Kiauchau was handed over to them. They were under an express instruction from their Government that unless they were placed in a position to carry out their obligation to China they were not allowed to sign the Treaty.
第 100 頁 - The policy of Japan is to hand back the Shantung Peninsula in full sovereignty to China, retaining only the economic privileges granted to Germany, and the right to establish a settlement under the usual conditions at Tsingtao.

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