Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier

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M.E. Sharpe, 1996 - 417 頁
Based on archival research, this is a history of the Russo-Chinese border which examines Russia's expansion into the Asian heartland during the decades of Chinese decline and the 20th-century paradox of Russia's inability to sustain political and economic sway over its domains.

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Notes
196
OverExtension The Boxer Uprising and the Russian Invasion
207
The Boxer Uprising of 1900
209
The Russian Occupation of Manchuria
213
The Russian Troop Withdrawal Agreement of 1902
217
Escalating Russian Demands and the Myth of Diplomatic Incompetence
221
Notes
224
RollBack The RussoJapanese War
232

Russia and China in the Age of Commercial Maritime Empires
27
The Demise of the Overland Trade and Geographic Exploration
29
Local Officials and the Myth of Russian Original Sovereignty
33
The Crimean War of 1853 to 1856 and Russias Turn to the East
37
Notes
41
Traditional Chinese Diplomacy in Retreat The Treaty of Aigun
47
The Tribute System and the Russian Barbarians
48
The Chinese Concept of Face
52
Chinas Missed Opportunity
55
The Treaties of Tientsin and Aigun of 1858
62
Notes
68
Capitulation The Treaty of Peking
77
Russian International Weakness and Chinese Intransigence
82
Russian Mediation of the Treaty of Peking of 1860
85
The Ramifications and the Myths of Friendship and Original Sovereignty
90
Notes
95
Ili Sinkiang 18711881 A Turning Point in Chinese Foreign Policy
105
Ethnic Tensions The Muslim Uprising and Russian Invasion
108
The Myth of Chinese Original Sovereignty over Sinkiang
110
Russian Expansion into Central Asia
112
The Muslim Uprising of 1862 to 1878 and the Myth of Chinese Moderation
115
The Russian Invasion of 1871
118
Notes
123
Chinese Diplomacy in Disarray The Treaty of Livadia
130
The Treaty of Livadia of 1879
131
Saving Face and the Myth of Diplomatic Incompetence
133
Institutional Failures of the Chinese Government
135
The Foreign Policy Debate in China
139
Notes
143
A Reprieve The Treaty of St Petersburg
149
The Chinese Negotiating Strategy
150
Russian National Dignity
151
The Negotiations and the Myth of RussoChinese Friendship
154
The Treaty of St Petersburg of 1881
159
Notes
165
Manchuria 18961905 Russian Railroad Imperialism and the RussoJapanese War
173
The Apogee of Tsarist Imperialism The Chinese Eastern Railway
176
The SinoJapanese War of 1894 to 1895 and the New Balance of Power in Asia
179
The RussoChinese AntiJapanese Alliance of 1896
183
The Liaotung Peninsula Concession of 1898
188
Exclusive Zones and the Militarization of the Border
192
Russias Civilizing Mission versus Japans Foreign Policy Concerns
233
The RussoJapanese War of 1904 to 1905
238
Instability within the Russian Government
245
Economic Backwardness and International Competition
248
Notes
255
Outer Mongolia 19111924 Shifting Spheres of Influence
267
Mongolia The Last Frontier
270
Traditional Ching Administration of Mongolia
274
Ethnic Tensions in Mongolia and the Myth of Chinese Moderation
276
The Chinese Attempt to Absorb Mongolia via Administrative Reforms
278
Notes
280
Tsarist Foreign Policy Mongolian Autonomy and Chinese Suzerainty
285
Russian Support for the Separation of Mongolia from China
286
The RussoMongolian Agreement of 1912
290
The RussoChinese Declaration of 1913
293
The Tripartite Kiakhta Conference of 1915
296
Notes
303
Soviet Foreign Policy Mongolian Independence under Soviet Tutelage
312
Ataman Semenov
314
Baron Ungern
317
Soviet Imperialism in the Far East
319
The Myths of the Discontinuity of Soviet Policy and Chinese Moderation
323
Notes
330
Conclusion
341
The Evolution of Russias China Policy
344
The Paradoxes of Empire
348
The Past as an Indicator for the Future
353
Notes
356
Bibliographic Essay
361
Secondary Sources in Russian and Chinese
362
Primary Sources
364
Archives
365
Notes
366
Bibliography
368
II Published Primary Sources
369
III Published Secondary Sources
378
IV Reference Works
397
V Dissertations
399
Index
401
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第 x 頁 - Research for this article was supported in part by a grant from the International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX), with funds provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities...
第 114 頁 - The position of Russia in Central Asia is that of all civilised States which are brought into contact with half-savage nomad populations possessing no fixed social organisation.
第 187 頁 - ... administration, etc. Criminal cases, lawsuits, etc., upon the territory of the railway, must be settled by the local authorities in accordance with the stipulations of the treaties.
第 359 頁 - Susan Naquin and Evelyn S. Rawski, Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), which begins by stressing the importance of relating the actions of the state to "the lives of even ordinary citizens
第 318 頁 - The Soviet Government returns to the Chinese people, without demanding any kind of compensation, the Chinese Eastern Railway...
第 101 頁 - Henri Cordier, Histoire des relations de la Chine avec les puissances occidentales 1860—1902, Bd.
第 xxi 頁 - About a hundred years ago, the area to the east of (Lake) Baikal became Russian territory, and since then Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Kamchatka, and other areas have been Soviet territory. We have not yet presented our account for this list.
第 347 頁 - Petersburg Government adopts them as a. fait accompli which it did not intend, but cannot in honour recede from. If the local agents fail they are disavowed and recalled, and the language previously held is appealed to as a proof that the agents have overstepped...
第 187 頁 - Offences, litigation, &c., on the territory of the Chinese Eastern Railway shall be dealt with by local authorities, Chinese and Russian, on the basis of existing Treaties. " In regard to the carriage of passengers and goods, the responsibility for such conveyance, the lapse of time for claims, the order of recovering money from the railway when adjudged, and the relations of the railway to the public shall be...

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