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ing a few days before the Central Committee ple
Quotations here and in the following paragraph are from “Rabochaya zapis’zasedaniya Prezidiuma TsK KPSS, 4 noyabrya 1956 g.," LI. 34-360b; and “Rabochaya zapis' zasedaniya Prezidiuma TsK KPSS, 6 noyabrya 1956 g.," 6 November 1956 (Top Secret), in TsKhSD, F. 3, Op. 12, D. 1006, Ll. 41-45ob. This bickering was first described by Khruschev in his memoirs (“Memuary Nikity Sergeevicha Khrushcheva," pp. 77-78), and a few additional details (not mentioned in Malin's notes) came to light in the recently declassified transcript of the June 1957 CPSU Central Committee plenum (“Plenum TsK KPSS, iyun 1957 goda,” Ll. 270b-280b). The Malin notes confirm and add a great deal to these earlier sources. 173 The Russian phrase that Molotov used (odernut’ nado, chtoby ne komandoval) is slightly awkward in the original, but it can be roughly translated as it is here. 174
See “Plenum TsK KPSS, iyun 1957 goda," Ll. 2, 25. The charge of “dangerous zigzags" was leveled by Molotov at a CPSU Presidium meet
175 Micunovic, Moscow Diary, p. 156.
"Sobytiya v Vengrii 1956 g.," in Col.-General G. A. Krivosheev, ed., Grif sekretnosti snyat: Poteri vooruzhenykh sil SSSR v voinakh, boevykh deistviyakh i voennykh konfliktakh: Statisticheskoe issledovanie (Moscow: Voenizdat, 1993), p. 397. The number of Soviet deaths was 720, the number of Soviet wounded was 1,540. The number of Hungarian deaths was 2,502, and the number of Hungarian wounded was 19,226. 178
Attila Szakolczai, “A forradalmat koveto megtorlas soran kivegzettekrol,” in Evkonyv, Vol. 3 (Budapest: 1956-os Intezet, 1994), pp. 237256. Szakolczai provides a considerably lower figure (229) for the number of executions. The figure of 600 comes from Maria Ormos, “A konszolidacio problemai 1956 es 1958 kozott," Tarsadalmi Szemle, Vol. 44, Nos. 8-9 (1989), pp. 48-65. See also Janos Balassa et al., eds., Halottaink, 2 vols. (Budapest: Katalizator, 1989). 179
"Zprava o jednani na UV KSSS 24. rijna 1956," L. 12. 180
Khrushchev, “Memuary Nikity Sergeevicha Khrushcheva," p. 81. 181 Testimony of former national defense minister Lajos Czinege in Magyar Orszaggyules, A Honvedelmi Bizottsag 1989 oktoberi ulesszakan letrhozott vizsgalobizottsag 1989 december 11-i, 1990 januar 3-i, 1990 januar 15-i, 1990 februar 6-i ulese jegyzokonyvenek nyili reszlete, 5 vols. (1994), Vol. 1, p. 261.
"Tov. Orlovu A.L.," Memorandum No. 1869/ 2 (Top Secret), 28 December 1956, transmitting a report prepared by I. Tugarinov, deputy head of the Foreign Ministry's Information Committee, in AVPRF, F. Referentura po Vengrii, Op.36, Por.9, Pap.47a, D.110, L1.11-18. An English translation of this document, as well as an insightful commentary by James Hershberg, can be found in the Cold War International History Bulletin, Issue No.4 (Fall 1994), pp.61-64. 183
Micunovic, Moscow Diary, p. 134. 184 Khrushchev, “Memuary Nikity Sergeevicha Khrushcheva," pp. 80-82. 185
The notion of a tradeoff between “cohesion" and “viability” is well presented in James F. Brown, Relations Between the Soviet Union and Its East European Allies: A Survey, R-1742-PR (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1975).
FUNDS SOUGHT TO PROCESS
$50,000 to finance critical research, inRADIO FREE EUROPE TAPES
volving processing of the tapes that ON 1956 HUNGARIAN EVENTS
were previously believed lost and/or
missing, and acquisition of additional For forty years, various politicians,
materials from other foreign radios and historians, and public figures have de
archives. The sources and the profesbated the existence of Radio Free
sional contacts are already established. Europe's tapes of broadcasts made dur
Processing the collection and ing the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
complementing it with additional In the summer of 1995, Mr. Gyorgy
broadcast and recorded materials, will Vamos, Director of Documentation for
create a basis for a meaningful and obHungarian National Radio, and Judy jective analysis of the American and Katona, M.A., A.B.D., researcher and
Western policies of the time. All matejournalist, found the recordings in Ger
rials, of course, would be made freely, many—over 500 hours of tape, which
equally, and openly available to rereveal what was broadcast and raise
searchers. serious questions concernig policy and
In the future, in a second phase of intent.
the research, a major English language These holdings constitute a unique
source document can be published with and invaluable record for the study of
content analysis of the broadcasts, footHungarian history, the role of the United
notes, and detailed references. States and American radio in the 1956
In the first phase of the implemenHungarian Revolution, and in general,
tation of the project, money would be the role of U.S. media abroad in pro
spent on researchers' stipends, translamoting ideology, and internal divergen
tions, acquisition of materials, transcripcies which led broadcasters to convey
tion, duplications, and travel. messages about American intentions
For further information, contact Judy which were at odds with the actual in
Katona at (703) 913-5824 (telephone) tentions of top policy makers during this
or email@example.com (e-mail). tense period of the Cold War.
We are seeking support of US
Mark Kramer, a scholar based at the Davis
THE “MALIN NOTES” ON THE CRISES
Translated and Annotated by Mark Kramer
The translated items below are in chronological order. They include Vladimir Malin's notes of CPSU Presidium meetings that dealt with the events in Hungary and Poland in 1956. The notes are supplemented by several other newly released documents that shed direct light on portions of the notes. Most of the documents, including Malin's notes, were translated from Russian, but two documents (both from the Hungarian National Archive) were translated from Hungarian.
Extensive annotations have been included because of the idiosyncratic style of the notes and the large number of references (to events, individuals, etc.) that may not be familiar to most readers. Rather than putting in separate annotations to identify specific persons, I have compiled an identification list of all individuals mentioned in the notes. This list and a list of abbreviations precede the notes and should be consulted whenever unfamiliar names or abbreviations turn up.
As best as possible, the flavor and style of the original have been preserved in the English translation, but in a few cases I have expanded Russian and Hungarian abbreviations and acronyms to avoid confusion. For example, there is no equivalent in English for the Russian abbreviation “m.b.,” short for mozhet byr’, meaning "perhaps” or “maybe.” Hence, in this particular instance the English word has been written out in full. In most cases, the translation seeks to replicate abbreviations and acronyms, but they have been used only when it does not cause confusion.
The English translation is not identical to the published Hungarian and Russian compilations of the Malin notes. Both of these earlier publications contain several errors, including a few that substantially alter the meaning of the original. The fact that mistakes cropped up is mainly a reflection of how difficult it is to work with the handwritten originals, which, aside from problems of legibility, are occasionally out of sequence in the archival folders. In some cases the mispagination is easy to correct, but in a few instances the reordering of pages necessitates very close textual analysis. I have corrected all these mistakes in the English translation, and have included details about the corrections in the annotations.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
APRF = Arkhiv Prezidenta Rossiiskoi
tary History Archive), Budapest
IN THE MALIN NOTES
Three points are worth mentioning
Second, the entries for some HungarPZPR = Polska Zjednoczona Partia ian Communist party officials include as Robotnicza (Polish United Workers' Party) many as three titles for the party. The ComSUA = Statni ustredni archiv (Central State munist party in Hungary was called the Archive), Prague
Hungarian Communist Party (Magyar TSAMO = Tsentral'nyi arkhiv Ministerstva Kommunista Part) until June 1948, when it oborony Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Central compelled the Hungarian Social Democratic Archive of the Ministry of Defense, Rus- Party (Magyar Szocial-Demokrata Part) to sian Federation)
merge with it. The combined party was reTsKhSD=Tsentr Khraneniya Sovremennoi named the Hungarian Workers' Party Dokumentatsii (Center for the Storage of (Magyar Dolgozok Partja). The HungarContemporary Documentation), Moscow ian Workers' Party was dissolved at the end UV = Central Committee (of the KSC) of October 1956, and a new Hungarian SoVHA = Vojensky historicky archiv (Military- cialist Workers' Party (Magyar Szocialista Historical Archive), Prague
Munkaspart) was formed on 1 November 1956. The acronyms HCP, HWP, and
HSWP will be used in the listings to refer to November 1956; member of the HSWP Pro- from the HWP in mid-July 1956; arrested the successive incarnations of the Hungar- visional Executive Committee; senior Hun- on 12 October 1956; sentenced to 16 years ian Communist party. garian state official until 1984
imprisonment in February 1957; amnestied Third, two Hungarian officials who BATA, Istvan: Hungarian minister of in 1961 played contrasting roles in 1956 were both national defense until 24 October 1956; fled FIRYUBIN, Nikolai: Soviet ambasnamed Istvan Kovacs. The identifications to the Soviet Union on 28 October 1956 sador in Yugoslavia and the translator's annotations should pre- BEREI, Andor: head of the Hungar- GERO, Erno: First Secretary of the vent any confusion about which was which. ian state planning bureau from 1954 to 1956; HWP from 18 July 1956 to 25 October 1956;
fled to the Soviet Union with his wife, fled to the Soviet Union on 28 October 1956 CPSU CC PRESIDIUM
Erszebet Andics (see above), in late Octo- GHEORGHIU-DEJ, Gheorghe: First ber 1956
Secretary of the Romanian Workers' Party FULL MEMBERS: Nikolai BOLDOCZKI, Janos: Hungarian am- GOMULKA, Wladyslaw: First SecBULGANIN (prime minister), Kliment bassador in Moscow
retary of the Polish United Workers' Party VOROSHILOV (chairman of the Pre- CHERNUKHA, Vladimir: deputy (PZPR) from 20 October 1956 to Decemsidium of the Supreme Soviet), Lazar' head of the General Department of the ber 1970 KAGANOVICH (first deputy prime min- CPSU Central Committee
GROMYKO, Andrei: Soviet first ister), Aleksei KIRICHENKO (First Sec- CYRANKIEWICZ, Jozef: Polish deputy foreign minister retary of the Ukrainian Communist Party), prime minister
GRYAZNOV, Feodosii: counselor at Georgii MALENKOV (deputy prime min- DOBI, Istvan: president of Hungary the Soviet embassy in Yugoslavia ister), Anastas MIKOYAN, Vyacheslav (a largely figurehead post)
HEGEDUS, Andras: Hungarian MOLOTOV (foreign minister until June DOGEI, Imre: appointed minister of prime minister from April 1955 to 24 Octo1956), Mikhail PERVUKHIN, Maksim agriculture in the Provisional Workers' and ber 1956; first deputy prime minister from SABUROV (first deputy prime minister), Peasants's Government formed on 4 No- 24 to 27 October 1956; fled to Soviet Union Mikhail SUSLOV (CPSU CC Secretary), vember 1956
on 28 October 1956 and Nikita KHRUSHCHEV (CPSU CC DONATH, Ferenc: well-known HIDAS, Istvan: member of the HWP First Secretary).
economist; leading supporter of Imre Nagy; Politburo from June 1953 to 26 October
appointed a Secretary of the HWP on 23-24 1956; deputy prime minister from 1954 to CANDIDATE MEMBERS: Leonid October 1956; appointed a member of the 26 October 1956 BREZHNEV (CPSU CC Secretary), HSWP Executive Committee on 1 Novem- HORTHY, Admiral Nicolas de: final Georgii ZHUKOV (defense minister), ber 1956; took refuge in the Yugoslav em- commander-in-chief of the Austro-HungarNurotdin MUKHITDINOV, Ekaterina bassy on 4 November 1956; arrested by ian Navy; authoritarian leader (with the title FURTSEVA (CPSU CC Secretary), Nikolai Soviet troops on 22 November 1956 and of Regent) in Hungary during the interwar SHVERNIK (chairman of CPSU Party transferred to Romania; sentenced to 12 period and most of World War II (1920Control Committee), and Dmitrii SHEP- years imprisonment in June 1958; amnestied 1944) ILOV (foreign minister after June 1956). in 1960
HORVATH, Imre: Hungarian foreign
DUDAS, Jozsef: engineer; one of the minister from 30 July 1956 to 2 November CPSU CC SECRETARIES NOT ON most radical leaders of the Budapest rebel 1956; foreign minister in Provisional WorkTHE CPSU CC PRESIDIUM
forces after 23 October 1956; took part in ers' and Peasants' Government formed by
the armed resistance against the Soviet in- Janos Kadar on 4 November 1956 Averki ARISTOV, Nikolai BEL- vasion; arrested by Soviet troops on 21 No- KADAR, Janos: victim of Stalin-era YAEV, and Pyotr POSPELOV.
vember 1956; executed in January 1957 purges; member of HWP Politburo after 18
DULLES, John Foster: U.S. Secre- July 1956; elected HWP First Secretary on OTHERS MENTIONED tary of State
25 October 1956; chairman of HWP PreIN THE NOTES
EGRI, Gyula: HWP Secretary from sidium from 28 October 1956 until the for
1955 to 1956; fled to the Soviet Union at mation of the HSWP on 1 November; memANDICS, Erzsebet: chief historian for the beginning of November 1956; returned ber of the HSWP Executive Committee from the HWP until the autumn of 1956; fled to to Hungary in April 1957
1 November; state minister in Imre Nagy's the Soviet Union with her husband, Andor EISENHOWER, Dwight: U.S. Presi- government from 1 to 4 November 1956; Berei (see below), in late October 1956 dent
formed a “Provisional Workers' and PeasANDROPOV, Yurii: Soviet ambassa- ELYUTIN, Vyacheslav: Soviet min- ants' Government” on 4 November 1956; dor in Hungary ister of higher education
top leader in Hungary until 1988 APRO, Antal: member of the HCP/ EPISHEV, Aleksei: Soviet ambassa- KARDELJ, Edvard: vice-president of HWP Politburo from 1946 to 1951 and 1953 dor in Romania
Yugoslavia; top aide to Tito to 1956; Hungarian deputy prime minister FARKAS, Mihaly: Hungarian minis- KIRALY, General Bela: released from from November 1953 to 3 November 1956; ter of national defense from 1948 to 1953; prison in September 1956; appointed head member of the HWP Presidium from 28 notorious organizer of mass repression in of the police and armed forces of the RevoOctober 1956; minister of industry after 4 Hungary during the Rakosi era; expelled lutionary Committee for Public Order on 30
October 1956; appointed to the Revolution- the insurgents after the 1956 revolution be- NAGY, Imre: Hungarian prime minary Defense Committee on 31 October 1956; gan; appointed to Revolutionary Defense ister from July 1953 to March 1955 and from appointed commander of the National Guard Committee and a first deputy minister of na- 24 October 1956 to 4 November 1956; on 3 November 1956; one of the leaders of tional defense on 31 October 1956; ap- sought refuge in Yugoslav embassy on 4 Nothe armed resistance to the Soviet invasion pointed national defense minister on 3 No- vember 1956; arrested by Soviet troops on
KISS, Karoly: member of the HWP vember 1956 and promoted to the rank of 22 November 1956 and transferred to RoPresidium from 28 October 1956; member major-general; arrested on the evening of 3 mania; executed by hanging in June 1958 of the HSWP Provisional Executive Com- November by Soviet KGB troops; executed NOVOTNY, Antonin: First Secretary mittee after 4 November 1956; member of by hanging along with Imre Nagy in June of Czechoslovak Communist Party the HSWP Politburo from 1957 to 1962 1958
OCHAB, Edward: First Secretary of KONEV, Marshal Ivan: commander- MALIN, Vladimir: head of the Gen- the PZPR from March 1956 to 20 October in-chief of the Warsaw Pact Joint Armed eral Department of the CPSU Central Com- 1956 Forces; appointed on 1 November as over- mittee
PIROS, Lajos: Hungarian minister of all commander of Soviet troops that invaded MALININ, General Mikhail: first internal affairs from 1954 to 27 October Hungary on 4 November
deputy chief of the Soviet General Staff; 1956; fled to the Soviet Union on 28 OctoKOSSA, Istvan: finance minister in commanded Soviet forces during the initial ber 1956 the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Gov- intervention in Hungary on 23 October
PONOMARENKO, Panteleimon: ernment formed by Janos Kadar on 4 No- MALNASAN, Aurel: Romanian Soviet ambassador in Poland vember 1956 deputy foreign minister
PONOMAREV, Boris: head of the KOVACS, Bela: Secretary General of MAO Zedong: Chairman of the Chi- CPSU CC Department for Ties with Forthe Independent Smallholders Party until nese Communist Party
eign Communist Parties February 1947; imprisoned in the Soviet MAROSAN, Gyorgy: victim of POPOVIC, Koca: Yugoslav foreign Union from February 1947 until the autumn Stalin-era purges; rehabilitated in 1956; minister of 1955; member of Imre Nagy's cabinet member of the HWP Politburo from July to RAJK, Laszlo: top Hungarian Comfrom 27 October 1956 (and a state minister October 1956; state minister in the Provi- munist official; sentenced to death on from 3 to 4 November 1956)
sional Workers' and Peasants' Government trumped-up charges in October 1949; postKOVACS, General Istvan: senior formed by Janos Kadar on 4 November 1956 humously rehabilitated in March 1956; reHungarian army official; appointed chief of MICUNOVIC, Veljko: Yugoslav am- buried in October 1956 the Hungarian General Staff; arrested by So- bassador in Moscow
RAKOSI, Matyas: HWP First Secreviet KGB troops on 3 November; sentenced MILOVANOV, Milenko: employee tary from June 1948 to July 1956; served to six years imprisonment in 1958; at the Yugoslav embassy in Budapest; killed simultaneously as Hungarian prime minisamnestied in 1960
by stray Soviet tankfire on 5 November 1956 ter from 1952 to June 1953; fled to the SoKOVACS, Istvan: senior official in MINDSZENTY, Cardinal Jozsef: Pri- viet Union on 26 July 1956, where he spent HCP/HWP from 1945 on; member of the mate of the Hungarian Catholic Church; im- the rest of his life HWP Politburo from March 1955; HWP prisoned from 1948 to July 1955; under RANKOVIC, Aleksander: Yugoslav Secretary from November 1955; first sec- house arrest from July 1955 until 30 Octo- minister of internal affairs; party secretary retary of the Budapest party committee from ber 1956, when he was freed by Hungarian responsible for cadres; second most powerJuly 1954 to 29 October 1956; fled to the soldiers; took refuge in the U.S. embassy ful figure in Yugoslavia and widely regarded Soviet Union on 31 October 1956
on 4 November 1956 and remained there at the time as the heir apparent to Tito LIU Shaoqi: Secretary of the Chinese until 1971, when he was allowed to leave ROKOSSOWSKI, Marshal KonstanCommunist Party Central Committee; for Austria
tin: Soviet officer serving as Polish national deputy chairman of the Chinese Commu- MUNNICH, Ferenc: Hungarian am- defense minister, December 1949 to Nonist Party
bassador in the Soviet Union from Septem- vember 1956; removed from PZPR PolitLOSONCZY, Geza: victim of Stalin- ber 1954 to July 1956; Hungarian ambassa- buro on 20 October 1956; recalled to the era purges; rehabilitated in 1954; candidate dor in Yugoslavia from July 1956 to 25 Oc- Soviet Union in mid-November 1956 member of the HWP Politburo from 23 Oc- tober 1956; member of the HWP Presidium RONAI, Sandor: former Social tober 1956; state minister in Imre Nagy's from 28 to 31 October 1956; minister of in- Democrat; member of HWP Politburo until cabinet from 30 October 1956; member of ternal affairs from 27 October 1956; deputy June 1953; appointed minister of commerce the HSWP Executive Committee from 1 to head of the Provisional Workers' and Peas- in Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Gov4 November 1956; took refuge in Yugoslav ants' Government formed by Janos Kadar ernment formed by Janos Kadar on 4 Noembassy on 4 November; arrested on 22 on 4 November 1956
vember 1956; chairman of the Hungarian November and transferred to Romania; im- NAGY, Ferenc: leader of the Indepen- State Assembly (parliament) from 1952 to prisoned in Hungary in April 1957; died in dent Smallholders Party from 1945 to mid- 1962 prison in December 1957 under mysterious 1947 and Hungarian prime minister from SEROV, Ivan: chairman of the KGB circumstances
February 1946 to June 1947; emigrated to SOBOLEV, Arkadii: Soviet permaMALETER, Pal: colonel in the Hun- the United States after the Communists nent representative at the United Nations garian People's Army who took the side of forced him to resign from his posts
SZANTO, Zoltan: member of the THE MALIN NOTES
DOCUMENT No. 1
Working Notes from the Session of the
Those Taking Part: Bulganin, Voroshilov,
1. There's only one way out-put an end to what is in Poland.
If Rokossowski is kept, we won't have to press things for a while. 12
Form a committee. 13
3. We should invite to Moscow representatives from the Communist parties of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, the GDR, and Bulgaria. 15 Perhaps we should send CC officials to China for informational purposes.
16 4. Send information. Take notice of information. Think through the questions that have been raised.
Ciph. Teleg. No. ... from Budapest
We should call Cde. Mikoyan so that he'll
II. On Hungary.
HWP Politburo from 24 October 1956 (and of the HWP Presidium from 28 October); member of the HSWP Executive Committee from 1 to 4 November 1956; took refuge along with Imre Nagy in the Yugoslav embassy on 4 November 1956; arrested by Soviet troops when he left the embassy on 18 November 1956; transferred to Romania along with Imre Nagy and other former officials five days later; permitted to return to Hungary in 1958
TILDY, Zoltan: one of the leaders of the Independent Smallholders Party until August 1948; under house arrest from August 1948 to April 1956; a state minister in Imre Nagy's government from 27 October 1956 to 4 November 1956; arrested in May 1957 and sentenced to six years in prison in June 1958; amnestied in 1960
TITO, Josip Broz: General Secretary of the Yugoslav League of Communists; president of Yugoslavia
TOGLIATTI, Palmiro: General Secretary of the Italian Communist Party
ULBRICHT, Walter: General Secretary of the (East) German Socialist Unity Party (SED)
VAS, Zoltan: top-ranking official in the HCP and HWP from 1945 on; served as chairman of the Government Commission on Consumer Supplies during the 1956 revolution; took refuge in the Yugoslav embassy on 4 November 1956; arrested when he left the embassy on 18 November 1956; transferred along with Nagy and other former officials to Romania five days later; allowed to return to Hungary at the end of 1958
VEG, Bela: HWP Secretary from 1953 to October 1956
ZORIN, Valerian: Soviet deputy foreign minister
An article should be prepared in our press
Cdes. Mikoyan and Zhukov must consider recalling soldiers to their units. 18
Cde. Mikoyan is to draft information for the fraternal parties. 19
Pull out the KGB advisers
Perhaps the an cdes. could publish (Source: TsKhSD, F. 3, Op. 12, D. 1005, LI. something in the press.
49-50, compiled by V. N. Malin]
DOCUMENT No. 3
Working Notes from the Session of the
CPSU CC Presidium on 21 October 1956 (Malenkov, Khrushchev, Voroshilov). 9
On the Situation in Poland 20 Cde. Mikoyan should confer with Kovacs, (Molotov, Serov, Zhukov, Mikoyan, and he should speak firmly.10
Pervukhin, Saburov, Kaganovich,
Voroshilov, Suslov, Furtseva, Malenkov) (Source: TsKhSD, F. 3, Op. 12, D. 1005, LI. 2-2ob, compiled by V. N. Malin.)
Taking account of the circumstances, we DOCUMENT No. 2
should refrain from military intervention.
We need to display patience. (Everyone
(Source: TsKhSD, F. 3, Op. 12, D. 1006, unThose Taking Part: Bulganin, Kaganovich, numbered page. Compiled by V. N. Malin.]
DOCUMENT No. 4
Working Notes from the Session of the
CPSU CC Presidium on 23 October 1956 1. Briefing from the CPSU Delegation about the Trip to Warsaw."
Those Taking Part: Bulganin, Kaganovich, (Khrushchev, Mikoyan, Molotov, Mikoyan, Molotov, Pervukhin, Saburov, Kaganovich, Konev, Zhukov)
Khrushchev, Suslov, Brezhnev, Zhukov,