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CA

House Report No. 2495

81st Congress, 2d Session

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

ON KOREA

REPORT

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS

PURSUANT TO

H. Res. 206
A RESOLUTION AUTHORIZING THE COMMITTEE ON
FOREIGN AFFAIRS TO CONDUCT THOROUGH STUDIES
AND INVESTIGATIONS OF ALL MATTERS COMING
WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF SUCH COMMITTEE

JULY 11, 1950.-Committed to the Committee of the Whole House

on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

UNITED STATES

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

69597

WASHINGTON : 1950

ET STANFORD LIBRARIES

187225

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS

JOHN KEE, West Virginia, Chairman JAMES P. RICHARDS, South Carolina

CHARLES A. EATON, New Jersey JOSEPH L. PFEIFER, New York

ROBERT B. CHIPERFIELD, Illinois THOMAS S. GORDON, Ilinois

JOHN M. VORYS, Ohio HELEN GAHAGAN DOUGLAS, California FRANCES P. BOLTON, Ohio MIKE MANSFIELD, Montana

LAWRENCE H. SMITH, Wisconsin THOMAS E. MORGAN, Pennsylvania

CHESTER E. MERROW, New Hampshire LAURIE C. BATTLE, Alabama

WALTER H. JUDD, Minnesota GEORGE A. SMATHERS, Florida

JAMES G. FULTON, Pennsylvania A. S. J. CARNAHAN, Missouri

JACOB K. JAVITS, New York
THURMOND CHATHAM, North Carolina JOHN DAVIS LODGE, Connecticut
CLEMENT J. ZABLOCKI, Wisconsin

DONALD L. JACKSON, California
A. A. RIBICOFF, Connecticut
OMAR BURLESON, Texas

BOYD CRAWFORD, Staff Administrator
IRA E, BENNETT, Staff Consultant
SHELDON 2, KAPLAN, Staff Consultant
GEORGE LEE MILLIRAN, Staff Consultant
JUNE NIGH, Staff Assistant
WINIFRED OSBORNE, Staff Assistant
DORIS LEONE, Staf Assistant
MABEL WOTFORD, Staff Assistant

MARY G. CHACE, Staf Assistant
I

CONTENTS

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Map: The Two Koreas.

Covering memorandum.

1. Political Evolution of Korean Problem...

A. Wartime agreements on status of Korea..

1. Cairo Conference..

2. Potsdam Conference.

3. Soviet adherence to Potsdam Declaration..

B. Division of Korea at the 38th parallel; occupation of Korea,

1. Military decision for surrender purposes.-

2. General Order No. 1 of September 7, 1945...

C. Development of the impasse and the attempt to resolve it...

1. The "iron curtain.

2. Agreement for joint action: the Moscow Agreement of

December 1945.-

3. Division in the Joint Commission..

4. The issue between the Military Commanders.

5. Efforts at agreement by diplomacy.

6. Renewal of the impasse; the issues in the Joint Com-

mission on

7. Further attempt to resolve differences by diplomatic

means.

8. Proposal for withdrawal of troops.-

D. The United Nations and the Korean problem..

1. The choice before the United States.

2. Placing the issue before the General Assembly-

3. The United States proposal and the Soviet position..

4. Action of the General Assembly -

5. Frustration of the Temporary Commission..

6. South Korean elections..

7. Establishment of Government...

8. Formation of Government in North Korea..

9. Transfer of authority from United States Military

Command to the Republic of Korea..

10. Recognition of the new Government.--.

E. Withdrawal of military forces.-

1. Soviet note of September 18, 1948.

2. Statement of September 20, 1948, of the United States

position on withdrawal of occupation forces from

Korea

3. Reply of the United States to Soviet note.

4. Resolution of the General Assembly of December 12,

1948..

5. Gradual withdrawal of United States forces.

6. Final withdrawal of United States forces.

F. Korea and international organizations.-

1. Application for membership in United Nations rejected

by Soviet veto.--

2. Membership in other international organizations.....

G. Continuation of efforts to unify Korea.-

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1. Effect of the United Nations General Assembly reso-

lution of December 12, 1948.

2. Efforts of the United Nations Commission..

3. Resolution of the General Assembly, October 21, 1949.

19

20

20

Pago

21

21

21

II. United States assistance.

A. The record of economic assistance-

1. GARIOA funds for Korea, fiscal 1949.

2. Agreement on aid between United States of America

and Republic of Korea, December 31, 1948..

3. Transfer of Korean aid program to the ECA by Execu-

tive order.

4. Statement on the record of assistance.

5. Appropriation acts making funds available for economic

assistance

6. Authorizing legislation for economic assistance to

Korea

B. Analysis of economic aid to Korea..

C. Military assistance to Korea.

1. The policies governing military assistance

2. Assistance during fiscal year 1950 not under the

Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949 (Public

Law 329, 81st Cong).

3. Assistance rendered under Public Law 329..

4. Legislation providing military assistance-

5. Military assistance agreement between United States

and Republic of Korea, January 26, 1950-

6. Agreement between United States and Republic of

Korea, January 26, 1950, establishing the United

States Military Advisory Group---

D. Estimate of total assistance to Korea, including economic

assistance authorized but not yet appropriated.-

III. The present crisis.-

A. The preliminary phase-

1. Previous armed clashes between North Korea and the

Republic of Korea.

2. Events leading up to invasion.

B. The invasion of June, 1950: Governmental action...

1. Statement by United States Representative to the

United Nations, June 25, 1950.-

2. The first United Nations Security Council resolution-

June 25, 1950-

3. Reports from United Nations Temporary Com-

mission on Korea.-

4. Statement by the President of the United States.

June 27, 1950.--

5. Soviet reaction to President's statement.

6. Statement by United States Representative to the

United Nations on June 27, 1950.

7. The second United Nations Security Council reso-

lution-June 27, 1950

8. United States note of June 27, 1950, and Soviet reply-

9. Legality of United Nations Security Council action

on Korea...

10. Statement of President of the United States, June 30,

1950, on further military action in Korea.--

11. North Korean protest to United Nations, July 2,

1950.

12. The Third United Nations Security Council Resolu-

tion- July 7, 1950.-

(a) Text of resolution.

(6) The vote.

(c) Excerpts from verbatim record of Security

Council meeting, July 7, 1950.

(d) Statement by the President of the United

States, July 8, 1950.-

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